Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp 117–134 | Cite as

Feelings that Make a Difference: How Guilt and Pride Convince Consumers of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Consumption Choices

  • Paolo AntonettiEmail author
  • Stan Maklan


A significant body of research concludes that stable beliefs of perceived consumer effectiveness lead to sustainable consumption choices. Consumers who believe that their decisions can significantly affect environmental and social issues are more likely to behave sustainably. Little is known, however, about how perceived consumer effectiveness can be increased. We find that feelings of guilt and pride, activated by a single consumption episode, can regulate sustainable consumption by affecting consumers’ general perception of effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the impact that guilt and pride have on perceived consumer effectiveness and shows how this effect rests on the ability of these emotions to influence perceptions of agency. After experiencing guilt or pride, consumers see themselves as the cause of relevant sustainability outcomes. The process of causal attribution associated with these emotions influences consumers’ use of neutralization techniques. Through the reduction in consumers’ ability to neutralize their sense of personal responsibility, guilt and pride positively influence perceived consumer effectiveness. The inability to rationalize-away their personal responsibility, persuades consumers that they affect sustainability outcomes through their decisions. The research advances our understanding of sustainable consumption and identifies a new avenue for the regulation of individual consumer behavior that has significant implications for the development of sustainable marketing initiatives.


Ethical consumption Sustainable consumption Guilt Pride Perceived consumer effectiveness Self-efficacy 



Perceived consumer effectiveness




Perceived behavioral control


Internal locus of control


  1. Agnihotri, R., Rapp, A., Kothandaraman, P., & Singh, R. K. (2012). An emotion-based model of salesperson ethical behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, N., & Duhachek, A. (2010). Emotional compatibility and the effectiveness of antidrinking messages: A defensive processing perspective on shame and guilt. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(2), 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Andorfer, V. A., & Liebe, U. (2012). Research on fair trade consumption—a review. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(4), 415–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baca-Motes, K., Brown, A., Gneezy, A., Keenan, E., & Nelson, L. D. (2013). Commitment and behavior change: Evidence from the field. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(5), 1070–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagozzi, R. P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U. (1999). The role of emotions in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bamberg, S., & Möser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(1), 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory for personal and social change by enabling media. In A. Singhal, M. J. Cody, E. M. Rogers, & M. Sabido (Eds.), Entertainment—education and social change: History, research, and practice (pp. 75–96). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Basil, D. Z., Ridgway, N. M., & Basil, M. D. (2006). Guilt appeals: the mediating effect of responsibility. Psychology & Marketing, 23(12), 1035–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Basil, D. Z., Ridgway, N. M., & Basil, M. D. (2008). Guilt and giving: A process model of empathy and efficacy. Psychology & Marketing, 25(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baumeister, R. F. (2002). Reflections and reviews impulsive purchasing, and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(3), 670–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baumeister, R. F., Stillwell, A. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (1995). Personal narratives about guilt: Role in action control and interpersonal relationships. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17(1/2), 173–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., DeWall, C. N., & Zhang, L. (2007). How emotion shapes behavior: Feedback, anticipation, and reflection, rather than direct causation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(2), 167–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berger, I., & Corbin, R. (1992). Perceived consumer effectiveness and faith in others as moderators of environmentally responsible behaviours. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 11(2), 79–89.Google Scholar
  19. Blasi, A. (1999). Emotions and moral Motivation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 29(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bodolica, V., & Spraggon, M. (2011). Behavioral governance and self-conscious emotions: Unveiling governance implications of authentic and hubristic pride. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(3), 535–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2007). Volunteering for charity: Pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 771–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bray, J., Johns, N., & Kilburn, D. (2010). An exploratory study into the factors impeding ethical consumption. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(4), 597–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon’s Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrington, M. J., Neville, B. A., & Whitwell, G. J. (2010). Why ethical consumers don’t walk their talk: Towards a framework for understanding the gap between the ethical purchase intentions and actual buying behaviour of ethically minded consumers. Journal of Business Ethics, 97, 139–158.Google Scholar
  25. Carrus, G., Passafaro, P., & Bonnes, M. (2008). Emotions, habits and rational choices in ecological behaviours: The case of recycling and use of public transportation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(1), 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chan, R. (2001). Determinants of Chinese consumers’ green purchase behaviour. Psychology & Marketing, 18(4), 389–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chan, R., & Lau, L. (2000). Antecedents of green purchases: A survey in China. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(4), 338–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chatzidakis, A., Hibbert, S., & Smith, A. (2007). Why people don’t take their concerns about fair trade to the supermarket: The role of neutralization. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(1), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheng, J. T., Tracy, J. L., & Henrich, J. (2010). Pride, personality, and the evolutionary foundations of human social status. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(5), 334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cleveland, M., Kalamas, M., & Laroche, M. (2012). “It’s not easy being green”: Exploring green creeds, green deeds, and internal environmental locus. Psychology & Marketing, 29(2), 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, T. R. (2010). Moral emotions and unethical bargaining: The differential effects of empathy and perspective taking in deterring deceitful negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(4), 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cotte, J., & Trudel, R. (2009). Socially conscious consumerism—a systematic review of the body of knowledge. Network for Business Sustainability Knowledge Project Series. Accessed at: on 4 January 2013.
  33. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Bock, T., & Van Kenhove, P. (2010). Double standards: The role of techniques of neutralization. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(2), 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duhachek, A., Agrawal, N., & Han, D. (2012). Guilt versus shame: Coping, fluency, and framing in the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(6), 928–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eckhardt, G., Belk, R. W., & Devinney, T. M. (2010). Why don’t consumers consume ethically? Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9(6), 426–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ellen, P. S., Wiener, J. L., & Cobb-Walgren, C. (1991). The role of perceived consumer effectiveness in motivating environmentally conscious behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 10(2), 102–117.Google Scholar
  38. Fishbein, M. (1963). An investigation of relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations, 16, 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gilbert, P. (2003). Evolution, social roles, and the differences in shame and guilt. Social Research, 70(4), 1205–1230.Google Scholar
  40. Granzin, K., & Olsen, J. (1991). Characterizing participants in activities protecting the environment—a focus on donating, recycling, and conservation behaviors. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 10(2), 1–27.Google Scholar
  41. Gregory-Smith D., Smith, A., & Winklhofer, H. (2013) Emotions and dissonance in ‘ethical’ consumption choices. Journal of Marketing Management. doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2013.796320.
  42. Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J., & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 392–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grob, A. (1995). A structural model of environmental attitudes and behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haidt, J. (2003). The moral emotions. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 852–870). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hanss, D., & Böhm, G. (2010). Can I make a difference ? The role of general and domain-specific self-efficacy in sustainable consumption decisions. Umweltpsychologie, 14(2), 46–74.Google Scholar
  48. Hanss, D., & Böhm, G. (2013). Promoting purchases of sustainable groceries: An intervention study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 33, 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hartlieb, S., & Jones, B. (2009). Humanising business through ethical labelling: Progress and paradoxes in the UK. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(3), 583–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hastings, G., Stead, M., & Webb, J. (2004). Fear appeals in social marketing strategic and ethical reasons for concern. Psychology & Marketing, 21(11), 961–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2/3), 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hesz, A., & Neophytou, B. (2010). Guilt trip—from fear to guilt on the green bandwagon. Chichester, UK: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  53. Hibbert, S., Smith, A., Davies, A., & Ireland, F. (2007). Guilt appeals: Persuasion knowledge and charitable giving. Psychology & Marketing, 24(8), 723–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Higgins, E. T., Friedman, R. S., Harlow, R. E., Idson, L. C., Ayduk, O. N., & Taylor, A. (2001). Achievement orientations from subjective histories of success: Promotion pride versus prevention pride. European Journal of Social Psychology, 23(3), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Horton, J. J., Rand, D. G., & Zeckhauser, R. J. (2011). The online laboratory: Conducting experiments in a real labor market. Experimental Economics, 14(3), 399–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huhmann, B. A., & Brotherton, T. P. (1997). A content analysis of guilt appeals in popular magazine advertisements. The Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hyman, M. R., & Tansey, R. (1990). The ethics of psychoactive ads. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(2), 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jackson, T. (2006). The Earthscan reader in sustainable consumption. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  59. Kaiser, F. (2006). A moral extension of the theory of planned behavior: Norms and anticipated feelings of regret in conservationism. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(1), 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kappas, A. (2006). Appraisals are direct, immediate, intuitive, and unwitting…and some are reflective… Cognition & Emotion, 20(7), 952–975.Google Scholar
  61. Kim, Y., & Choi, S. M. (2005). Antecedents of green purchase behavior: An examination of collectivism, environmental concern, and PCE. Advances in Consumer Research, 32(1), 592–599.Google Scholar
  62. Kim, J., & Johnson, K. (2013). The impact of moral emotions on cause-related marketing campaigns: A cross-cultural examination. Journal of Business Ethics, 112(1), 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kinnear, T. C., Taylor, J. R., & Ahmed, S. A. (1974). Ecologically concerned consumers: Who are they? Journal of Marketing, 38(2), 20–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: A history of changing outlooks. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  66. Lee, J., & Holden, S. S. (1999). Understanding the determinants of environmentally conscious behavior. Psychology & Marketing, 16(5), 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindenmeier, J., Schleer, C., & Pricl, D. (2012). Consumer outrage: Emotional reactions to unethical corporate behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65(9), 1364–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lindsay, J. J., & Strathman, A. (1997). Predictors of recycling behavior: An application of a modified health belief model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1799–1823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lord, K. R., & Putrevu, S. (1998). Acceptance of recycling appeals: The moderating role of perceived consumer effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), 581–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mayer, F., & Frantz, C. (2004). The connectedness to nature scale: A measure of individuals’ feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(4), 503–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McDonald, R., Fielding, K., & Louis, W. (2013). Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(1), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mellers, B. A., & McGraw, A. P. (2001). Anticipated emotions as guides to choice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 210–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mishra, A., & Mishra, H. (2011). The influence of price discount versus bonus pack on the preference for virtue and vice foods. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(1), 196–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mohr, G., Lichtenstein, D., & Janiszewski, C. (2012). The effect of marketer-suggested serving size on consumer responses: The unintended consequences of consumer attention to calorie information. Journal of Marketing, 76(1), 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Niedenthal, P. M., Tangney, J. P., & Gavanski, I. (1994). “If only I weren’t” versus “If only I hadn’t”: Distinguishing shame and guilt in conterfactual thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(4), 585–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nisbet, E., Zelenski, J., & Murphy, S. (2009). The nature relatedness scale linking individuals’ connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior. Environment and Behavior, 41(5), 715–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oppenheimer, D. M., Meyvis, T., & Davidenko, N. (2009). Instructional manipulation checks: Detecting satisficing to increase statistical power. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 867–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Patrick, V. M., Chun, H. H., & Macinnis, D. J. (2009). Affective forecasting and self-control: Why anticipating pride wins over anticipating shame in a self-regulation context. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(3), 537–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peloza, J., White, K., & Shang, J. (2013). Good and guilt-free : The role of self-accountability in influencing preferences for products with ethical attributes. Journal of Marketing, 77(1), 104–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Prothero, A., Dobscha, S., Freund, J., Kilbourne, W. E., Luchs, M. G., Ozanne, L. K., et al. (2011). Sustainable consumption: Opportunities for consumer research and public policy. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 30(1), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reinartz, W., Haenlein, M., & Henseler, J. (2009). An empirical comparison of the efficacy of covariance-based and variance-based SEM. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(4), 332–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the MCSDS. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(1), 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rice, G. (2006). Pro-environmental behavior in Egypt: Is there a role for Islamic environmental ethics? Journal of Business Ethics, 65(4), 373–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Straub, D. W. (2012). A critical look at the use of PLS-SEM in MIS Quarterly. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), iiv–8.Google Scholar
  86. Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2.0,
  87. Roberts, J. A. (1996). Green consumers in the 1990s: Profile and implications for advertising. Journal of Business Research, 36(3), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rogers, R. W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Social Psychophysiology (pp. 153–176). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  89. Roseman, I. J. (1991). Appraisal determinants of discrete emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 5(3), 161–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Roseman, I. J., Antoniou, A. A., & Jose, P. E. (1996). Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. Cognition and Emotion, 10(3), 241–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schultz, P. W. (2000). Empathizing with nature: The effects of perspective taking on concern for environmental issues. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 391–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schwepker, C. H., Jr, & Cornwell, T. B. (1991). An examination of ecologically concerned consumers and their intention to purchase ecologically packaged products. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 10(2), 77–101.Google Scholar
  94. Shariff, A. F., Tracy, J. L., Cheng, J. T., & Henrich, J. (2010). Further thoughts on the evolution of pride’s two facets: A response to Clark. Emotion Review, 2(4), 399–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shaw, D., & Newholm, T. (2002). Voluntary simplicity and the ethics of consumption. Psychology & Marketing, 19(2), 167–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Skinner, N., & Brewer, N. (2002). The dynamics of threat and challenge appraisals prior to stressful achievement events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 678–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, S. M., Haugtvedt, C. P., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Attitudes and recycling: Does the measurement of affect enhance behavioral prediction? Psychology & Marketing, 11(4), 359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Soscia, I. (2007). Gratitude, delight, or guilt: The role of consumers’ emotions in predicting postconsumption behaviours. Psychology & Marketing, 24(10), 871–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Steenhaut, S., & Van Kenhove, P. (2005). Relationship commitment and ethical consumer behavior in a retail setting: The case of receiving too much change at the checkout. Journal of Business Ethics, 56(4), 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Steenhaut, S., & Van Kenhove, P. (2006). The mediating role of anticipated guilt in consumers’ ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(3), 269–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Strutton, D., Vitell, S. J., & Pelton, L. E. (1994). How consumers may justify inappropriate behavior in market settings: An application on the techniques of neutralization. Journal of Business Research, 30(3), 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sykes, G. M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22(6), 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tangney, J. P., & Dearing, R. L. (2002). Shame and guilt. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  104. Tangney, J. P., Niedenthal, P. M., Covert, M., & Barlow, D. (1998). Are shame and guilt related to distinct self-discrepancies? A test of Higgins’s (1987) hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 256–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 345–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tangney, J. P., & Tracy, J. L. (2012). The self-conscious emotions. In M. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed., pp. 446–480). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  107. Taylor, S., & Todd, P. (1995). Understanding household garbage reduction behavior: A test of an integrated model. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 14(2), 192–204.Google Scholar
  108. Thøgersen, J. (1996). Recycling and morality: A critical review of the literature. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 536–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2004). Putting the self into self-conscious emotions: A theoretical model. Psychological Inquiry, 15(2), 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2007). The psychological structure of pride: A tale of two facets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 506–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: Critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 751–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Verbeke, W., Belschak, F., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2004). The adaptive consequences of pride in personal selling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(4), 386–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vermeir, I., & Verbeke, W. (2006). Sustainable food consumption: Exploring the consumer “attitude-behavioral intention” gap. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 19(2), 169–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vermeir, I., & Verbeke, W. (2008). Sustainable food consumption among young adults in Belgium: Theory of planned behaviour and the role of confidence and values. Ecological Economics, 64(3), 542–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (2008). Self-regulation—goals, consumption, and choices. In C. P. Haugtvedt, P. M. Herr, & F. R. Kardes (Eds.), Handbook of consumer psychology (pp. 349–367). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  116. Webb, D. J., Mohr, L. A., & Harris, K. E. (2008). A re-examination of socially responsible consumption and its measurement. Journal of Business Research, 61(2), 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Webster, F. E. (1975). Determining the characteristics of the socially conscious consumer. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3), 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Webster, J. M., Duvall, J., Gaines, L. M., & Smith, R. H. (2003). The roles of praise and social comparison information in the experience of pride. Journal of Social Psychology, 143(2), 209–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Williams, L. A., & DeSteno, D. (2008). Pride and perseverance: The motivational role of pride. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(6), 1007–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Winer, R. S. (1999). Experimentation in the 21st century: The importance of external validity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(3), 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cranfield University—School of ManagementCranfieldUK
  2. 2.Warwick Business School—The University of WarwickCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations