Self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure as mediators between self-esteem and academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions
- 312 Downloads
Academic procrastination has been a widespread problem behavior among undergraduates. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, and explore the mediation effects of self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure in the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination. A cross-sectional design was used to study 1184 undergraduates in health professions from China. Participants completed measures of academic procrastination, self-esteem, self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure. We used Pearson product-moment correlation to examine the bivariate correlations between study variables, and path analysis to examine mediation. Among the 1184 undergraduates, 877 (74.1%) procrastinated on at least one type of academic task. The total score for academic procrastination was negatively correlated with scores for self-esteem and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and positively correlated with the score for fear of failure. Moreover, the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination was fully mediated by self-efficacy for self-regulation (indirect effect: β = − .15, 95% bootstrap CI − .19 to − .11) and fear of failure (indirect effect: β = − .06, 95% bootstrap CI − .09 to − .04). These findings suggest that interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy for self-regulation and the conquest of fear of failure may prevent or reduce academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, especially for those with lower self-esteem.
KeywordsAcademic procrastination Self-esteem Self-efficacy for self-regulation Fear of failure Undergraduates Health professions
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province [No. ZR2013CM039], and the comprehensive education and teaching reform program of Shandong University 2015.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The Medical Ethics Committee of Shandong University approved the study.
- Argumedo, B. D., Cema, K. D., Calderón, G. A., Díazmorales, J. F., & Ferrari, J. R. (2005). Assessment of the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination. Revista De Psicología, 23(1), 115–138.Google Scholar
- Batool, S. S., Khursheed, S., & Jahangir, H. (2017). Academic procrastination as a product of low self-esteem: A mediational role of academic self-efficacy. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 32(1), 195–211.Google Scholar
- Chen, L., Wu, C., Kee, Y., Lin, M., & Shui, S. (2009). Fear of failure, 2 × 2 achievement goal and self-handicapping: An examination of the hierarchical model of achievement motivation in physical education. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(4), 298–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2009.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Farid, M. F., Akhtar, M., & Qamar, S. (2014). Relationship between causal attributions and self-esteem. World Applied Sciences Journal, 32(3), 386–391.Google Scholar
- Fatimah, O., Lukman, Z. M., Khairudin, R., Shahrazad, W. S., & Halim, F. W. (2011). Procrastination’s relation with fear of failure, competence expectancy and intrinsic motivation. Pertanika Journal of Social Science & Humanities, 19, 123–127.Google Scholar
- Flett, A. L., Haghbin, M., & Pychyl, T. A. (2016). Procrastination and depression from a cognitive perspective: An exploration of the associations among procrastinatory automatic thoughts, rumination, and mindfulness. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 34(3), 169–186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-016-0235-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hogan, M. J., Dwyer, C. P., Harney, O. M., Noone, C., & Conway, R. J. (2014). Metacognitive skill development and applied systems science: A framework of metacognitive skills, self-regulatory functions and real-world applications. In A. Peña-Ayala (Ed.), Metacognition: Fundaments, applications and trends (Vol. 76, pp. 75–106). Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hou, Y., & Gai, N. (2008). Status and causes of academic procrastination of undergraduates. Psychological Research, 1(4), 91–96.Google Scholar
- Kachgal, M. M., Hansen, L. S., & Nutter, K. J. (2001). Academic procrastination prevention/intervention: Strategies and recommendations. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(1), 14–24.Google Scholar
- Madhan, B., Kumar, C. S., Naik, E. S., Panda, S., Gayathri, H., & Barik, A. K. (2012). Trait procrastination among dental students in India and its influence on academic performance. Journal of Dental Education, 76(10), 1393–1398.Google Scholar
- Masson, A. M., Hoyois, Ph, Cadot, M., Nahama, V., Petit, F., & Ansseau, M. (2004). Les filles réussissent mieux que les garçons à l’université : étude et modélisation des facteurs relatifs à la motivation et à l’agressivité mis en jeu lors des épreuves. L’Encéphale, 30(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mortazavi, F., Mortazavi, S. S., & Khosrorad, R. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS) in a student sample of sabzevar university of medical sciences. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 17(9), e28328. https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.28328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neureiter, M., & Traut-Mattausch, E. (2016). An inner barrier to career development: Preconditions of the impostor phenomenon and consequences for career development. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(48), 48–63.Google Scholar
- Osiurak, F., Faure, J., Rabeyron, T., Morange, D., Dumet, N., Tapiero, I., et al. (2015). Predictors of academic procrastination: Self-determined motivation, self-esteem and degree of maximization. Pratiques Psychologiques, 21(1), 19–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prps.2015.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Phan, H. P., & Ngu, B. H. (2014). Interrelations between self-esteem and personal self-efficacy in educational contexts: An empirical study. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(3), 108–120.Google Scholar
- Stuart, E. M. (2013). The relation of fear of failure, procrastination and self-efficacy to academic success in college for first and non first-generation students in private non-selective institution. Dissertation, University of Alabama.Google Scholar
- Tian, L. (2006). Shortcoming and merits of Chinese version of Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem Scale. Psychological Exploration, 26(98), 88–91.Google Scholar
- Visser, L. B., Korthagen, F. A. J., & Schoonenboom, J. (2015). Influences on and consequences of academic procrastination of first-year student teachers. Pedagogische Studien, 92(6), 394–412.Google Scholar
- Wang, M., & Qian, M. (2015). The Chinese revision of Self-efficacy of Self-regulated Learning scale. China Journal of Health Psychology, 23, 1532–1536.Google Scholar
- Wang, S., Zhou, Y., Yu, S., Ran, L., Liu, X., & Chen, Y. (2015). Acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy as treatments for academic procrastination: A randomized controlled group session. Research on Social Work Practice, 27, 48–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731515577890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yerdelen, S., McCaffrey, A., & Klassen, R. M. (2016). Longitudinal examination of procrastination and anxiety, and their relation to self-efficacy for self-regulated learning: Latent growth curve modeling. Educational Sciences: Theory & Pratice, 16, 5–22. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2016.1.0108.Google Scholar
- Zuffianò, A., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., Kanacri, B. P. L., Giunta, L. D., Milioni, M., et al. (2013). Academic achievement: The unique contribution of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning beyond intelligence, personality traits, and self-esteem. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar