Structural evidence for lack of inhibition of fish goose-type lysozymes by a bacterial inhibitor of lysozyme
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It is known that bacteria contain inhibitors of lysozyme activity. The recently discovered Escherichia coli inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivy) and its potential interactions with several goose-type (g-type) lysozymes from fish were studied using functional enzyme assays, comparative homology modelling, protein–protein docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. Enzyme assays carried out on salmon g-type lysozyme revealed a lack of inhibition by Ivy. Detailed analysis of the complexes formed between Ivy and both hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and goose egg white lysozyme (GEWL) suggests that electrostatic interactions make a dominant contribution to inhibition. Comparison of three dimensional models of aquatic g-type lysozymes revealed important insertions in the β domain, and specific sequence substitutions yielding altered electrostatic surface properties and surface curvature at the protein–protein interface. Thus, based on structural homology models, we propose that Ivy is not effective against any of the known fish g-type lysozymes. Docking studies suggest a weaker binding mode between Ivy and GEWL compared to that with HEWL, and our models explain the mechanistic necessity for conservation of a set of residues in g-type lysozymes as a prerequisite for inhibition by Ivy.
KeywordsLysozyme Goose-type Inhibitor Vertebrate Homology modelling Protein docking
This work was supported by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR), the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Tromsø (Fiskeriforskning) and the Norwegian Structural Biology Centre (NorStruct) at the University of Tromsø. Recombinant Ivy was a kind gift from Professor Chris Michiels at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
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