Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1759–1768 | Cite as

A mindful self-compassion videoconference intervention for nationally recruited posttreatment young adult cancer survivors: feasibility, acceptability, and psychosocial outcomes

  • Rebecca A. Campo
  • Karen Bluth
  • Sheila J. Santacroce
  • Sarah Knapik
  • Julia Tan
  • Stuart Gold
  • Kamaira Philips
  • Susan Gaylord
  • Gary N. Asher
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Young adult (YA) cancer survivors report substantial distress, social isolation, and body image concerns that can impede successful reintegration into life years after treatment completion. Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) interventions focus on developing mindfulness and self-compassion for managing distress, hardships, and perceived personal inadequacies. An MSC intervention would be beneficial in supporting YA survivors’ management of psychosocial challenges that arise in survivorship; however, a telehealth intervention modality is essential for reaching this geographically dispersed population. We conducted a single-arm feasibility study of an MSC 8-week videoconference intervention for nationally recruited YA survivors (ages 18–29).

Methods

The MSC intervention was group-based, 90-minute videoconference sessions, held weekly over 8 weeks, with audio-supplemented home practice. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed via attendance rate and an intervention satisfaction scale. Baseline to post-intervention changes in psychosocial outcomes (body image, anxiety, depression, social isolation, posttraumatic growth, resilience, self-compassion, mindfulness) were assessed using paired t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes.

Results

Thirty-four participants were consented and 25 attended a videoconference group. Feasibility was established with 84% attending at least six of the eight sessions, and intervention acceptability was high (M = 4.36, SD = 0.40, score range = 1–5). All psychosocial outcomes, except for resilience, demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.002), with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen’s d > 0.5).

Conclusion

YA survivors are interested in receiving an MSC videoconference intervention. Feasibility, acceptance, and potential psychosocial benefits of the intervention were demonstrated. Findings can be applied toward the design of an efficacy randomized controlled trial to improve quality of life for YA survivors in transition after cancer treatment.

Keywords

Young adult cancer survivors Videoconference Self-compassion Mindfulness Feasibility study Intervention 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Study funding was provided by a Small Grants Program for Research/Scholarship from University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill’s Department of Family Medicine, the University Cancer Research Fund, and NC TraCS grant (2KR651503). The study support was provided by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institutes of Health (UL1TR001111). R.A. Campo was supported by a T32 Research Fellowship (AT003378) from the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

References

  1. 1.
    Kwak M, Zebrack BJ, Meeske KA, Embry L, Aguilar C, Block R, Hayes-Lattin B, Li Y, Butler M, Cole S (2013) Trajectories of psychological distress in adolescent and young adult patients with cancer: a 1-year longitudinal study. J Clin Oncol 31:2160–2166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zebrack BJ, Corbett V, Embry L, Aguilar C, Meeske KA, Hayes-Lattin B, Block R, Zeman DT, Cole S (2014) Psychological distress and unsatisfied need for psychosocial support in adolescent and young adult cancer patients during the first year following diagnosis PsychooncologyGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kwak M, Zebrack BJ, Meeske KA, Embry L, Aguilar C, Block R, Hayes-Lattin B, Li Y, Butler M, Cole S (2013) Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a 1-year follow-up study. Psychooncology 22:1798–1806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu D, Fall K, Sparen P, Ye W, Adami HO, Valdimarsdottir U, Fang F (2013) Suicide and suicide attempt after a cancer diagnosis among young individuals. Ann Oncol 24:3112–3117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mattsson E, Ringner A, Ljungman G, von Essen L (2007) Positive and negative consequences with regard to cancer during adolescence. Experiences two years after diagnosis. Psychooncology 16:1003–1009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Millar B, Patterson P, Desille N (2010) Emerging adulthood and cancer: how unmet needs vary with time-since-treatment. Palliative & supportive care 8:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bellizzi K, Smith A, Schmidt S, Keegan T, Zebrack B, Lynch C, Deapen D, Shnorhavorian M (2012) Positive and negative life impact of being diagnosed with cancer as an adolescent or young adult. Psycho-Oncology 21:5–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Germer CK, Neff KD (2013) Self-compassion in clinical practice. J Clin Psychol 69:856–867CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neff KD, Germer CK (2013) A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. J Clin Psychol 69:28–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neff KD (2003) The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity 2:223–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Desrosiers A, Vine V, Klemanski DH, Nolen-Hoeksema S (2013) Mindfulness and emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: common and distinct mechanisms of action. Depression and anxiety 30:654–661CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brion J, Leary M, Drabkin A (2013) Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: the case of HIV. J Health Psychol 19:218–229CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pinto-Gouveia J, Duarte C, Matos M, Fraguas S (2014) The protective role of self-compassion in relation to psychopathology symptoms and quality of life in chronic and in cancer patients. Clin Psychol Psychother 21:311–23Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Przezdziecki A, Sherman KA, Baillie A, Taylor A, Foley E, Stalgis-Bilinski K (2013) My changed body: breast cancer, body image, distress and self-compassion. Psychooncology 22:1872–1879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zebrack BJ (2011) Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer. Cancer 117:2289–2294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bluth K, Gaylord SA, Campo RA, Mullarkey MC, Hobbs L (2016) Making friends with yourself: a mixed methods pilot study of a mindful self-compassion program for adolescents. Mindfulness (N Y) 7:479–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smeets E, Neff K, Alberts H, Peters M (2014) Meeting suffering with kindness: effects of a brief self-compassion intervention for female college students. J Clin Psychol 70:794–807CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zessin U, Dickhauser O, Garbade S (2015) The relationship between self-compassion and well-being: a meta-analysis. Applied psychology Health and well-being 7:340–364CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Friis AM, Johnson MH, Cutfield RG, Consedine NS (2016) Kindness matters: a randomized controlled trial of a mindful self-compassion intervention improves depression, distress, and HbA1c among patients with diabetes. Diabetes care 39:1963–1971Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rabin C, Simpson N, Morrow K, Pinto B (2011) Behavioral and psychosocial program needs of young adult cancer survivors. Qual Health Res 21:796–806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zebrack BJ (2009) Information and service needs for young adult cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer 17:349–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gorman JR, Roberts SC, Dominick SA, Malcarne VL, Dietz AC, Su HI (2014) A diversified recruitment approach incorporating social media leads to research participation among young adult-aged female cancer survivors. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 3:59–65CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rabin C, Simpson N, Morrow K, Pinto B (2013) Intervention format and delivery preferences among young adult cancer survivors. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 20:304–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Freeman LW, White R, Ratcliff CG, Sutton S, Stewart M, Palmer JL, Link J, Cohen L (2014) A randomized trial comparing live and telemedicine deliveries of an imagery-based behavioral intervention for breast cancer survivors: reducing symptoms and barriers to care. Psycho-Oncology: n/a-n/aGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zernicke KA, Campbell TS, Speca M, McCabe-Ruff K, Flowers S, Carlson LE (2014) A randomized wait-list controlled trial of feasibility and efficacy of an online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program: the eTherapy for cancer applying mindfulness trial. Psychosom Med 76:257–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Judge Santacroce S, Asmus K, Kadan-Lottick N, Grey M (2010) Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of coping skills training for adolescent—young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 27:10–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rabin C, Pinto B, Fava J (2015) Randomized trial of a physical activity and meditation intervention for young adult cancer survivors. Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult OncologyGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seitz DC, Knaevelsrud C, Duran G, Waadt S, Goldbeck L (2014) Internet-based psychotherapy in young adult survivors of pediatric cancer: feasibility and participants' satisfaction. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking 17:624–629Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Valle CG, Tate DF, Mayer DK, Allicock M, Cai J (2013) A randomized trial of a Facebook-based physical activity intervention for young adult cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv 7:355–368CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carlson LE, Brown KW (2005) Validation of the mindful attention awareness scale in a cancer population. J Psychosom Res 58:29–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pilkonis PA, Choi SW, Reise SP, Stover AM, Riley WT, Cella D, Group PC (2011) Item banks for measuring emotional distress from the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS(R)): depression, anxiety, and anger. Assessment 18:263–283CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hahn EA, DeWalt DA, Bode RK, Garcia SF, DeVellis RF, Correia H, Cella D (2014) New English and Spanish social health measures will facilitate evaluating health determinants. Health Psychol 33:490–499CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, Al Ghazal S (2001) A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 37:189–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith BW, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Christopher P, Bernard J (2008) The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. Int J Behav Med 15:194–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG (1996) The posttraumatic growth inventory: measuring the positive legacy of trauma. J Trauma Stress 9:455–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cohen J (1992) A power primer. Psychol Bull 112:155–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salsman JM, Garcia SF, Yanez B, Sanford SD, Snyder MA, Victorson D (2014) Physical, emotional, and social health differences between posttreatment young adults with cancer and matched healthy controls. Cancer 120:2247–2254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Seitz DC, Besier T, Debatin KM, Grabow D, Dieluweit U, Hinz A, Kaatsch P, Goldbeck L (2010) Posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety among adult long-term survivors of cancer in adolescence. Eur J Cancer 46:1596–1606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cantrell MA, Conte T, Hudson M, Shad A, Ruble K, Herth K, Canino A, Kemmy S (2012) Recruitment and retention of older adolescent and young adult female survivors of childhood cancer in longitudinal research. Oncol Nurs Forum 39:483–490CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Duggan M, Brenner J (2013) The demographics of social media users—2012. In: Editor (ed)^(eds) Book The demographics of social media users—2012. Pew Research Center, CityGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Seitz DC, Knaevelsrud C, Duran G, Waadt S, Loos S, Goldbeck L (2014) Efficacy of an internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a pilot study. Support Care Cancer 22:2075–2083CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tonorezos ES, Oeffinger KC (2011) Research challenges in adolescent and young adult cancer survivor research. Cancer 117:2295–2300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zebrack BJ, Isaacson S (2012) Psychosocial care of adolescent and young adult patients with cancer and survivors. J Clin Oncol 30:1221–1226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhou ES, Partridge AH, Blackmon JE, Morgan E, Recklitis CJ (2016) A pilot videoconference group stress management program in cancer survivors: lessons learned. Rural Remote Health 16:3863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lenhart A, Purcell K, Smith A, Zickuhr K (2010) Social media and mobile internet use among teens and young adults. In: Editor (ed)^(eds) Book Social media and mobile internet use among teens and young adults. Pew Research Center, CityGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gray R, Fitch M, Davis C, Phillips C (1996) Breast cancer and prostate cancer self-help groups: reflections on differences. Psycho-Oncology 5:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (2006) Closing the gap: research and care imperatives for adolescents and young adults with cancer In: Editor (ed)^(eds) Book Closing the gap: Research and care imperatives for adolescents and young adults with cancer National Institutes of Health, CityGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bleyer A (2012) How NCCN guidelines can help young adults and older adolescents with cancer and the professionals who care for them. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN 10:1065–1071CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bleyer A, O'Leary M, Barr R, Ries LAG (2006) Cancer epidemiology in older adolescents and young adults 15 to 29 years of age, Including SEER incidence and survival: 1975–2000. In: (eds) Book Cancer epidemiology in older adolescents and young adults 15 to 29 years of age, including SEER incidence and survival: 1975–2000. National Cancer Institute, NIH, CityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca A. Campo
    • 1
  • Karen Bluth
    • 1
  • Sheila J. Santacroce
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sarah Knapik
    • 1
  • Julia Tan
    • 4
  • Stuart Gold
    • 5
    • 3
  • Kamaira Philips
    • 1
  • Susan Gaylord
    • 1
  • Gary N. Asher
    • 3
    • 6
  1. 1.Program on Integrative Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics and Division of Pediatric Hematology-OncologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  6. 6.Department of Family MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations