Early-phase muscular adaptations in response to slow-speed versus traditional resistance-training regimens
- 2.2k Downloads
Thirty-four untrained women participated in a 6-week program to investigate slow-speed versus “normal” speed resistance-training protocols. Subjects were divided into: slow-speed (SS), normal-speed/traditional-strength (TS), normal-speed/traditional muscular endurance (TE), and non-exercising control (C) groups. Leg press, squats, and knee extensions were performed 2 days/week for the first week and 3 days/week for the remaining 5 weeks (~2 min rest). The SS group performed 6–10 repetitions maximum (6–10RM) for each set with 10 s concentric (con) and 4 s eccentric (ecc) contractions. The TS and TE groups performed sets of 6–10RM and 20–30RM, respectively, at “normal” speed (1–2 s/con and ecc contractions). TE and SS trained at the same relative intensity (~40–60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at ~80–85% 1RM. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content. The percentage of type IIX fibers decreased and IIAX increased in all three training groups. However, only TS showed an increase in percentage of type IIA fibers. CSA of fiber types I, IIA, and IIX increased in TS. In SS, only the CSA of IIA and IIX fibers increased. These changes were supported by MHC data. No significant changes for any parameters were found for the C group. In conclusion, slow-speed strength training induced a greater adaptive response compared to training with a similar resistance at “normal” speed. However, training with a higher intensity at “normal” speed resulted in the greatest overall muscle fiber response in each of the variables assessed.
KeywordsHuman skeletal muscle Fiber types Histochemistry Hypertrophy Myosin heavy chains Slow-speed training
We wish to thank all those individuals who assisted in supervising the training, and especially to the subjects who volunteered and worked so hard throughout the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
- Bergström J (1962) Muscle electrolytes in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 14(Suppl 68):1–110Google Scholar
- Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, Moore DR, Holwerda AM, Parise G, Rennie MJ, Baker SK, Phillips SM (2010) Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. PLoS One 5:e12033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Campos GE, Luecke TJ, Wendeln HK, Toma K, Hagerman FC, Murray TF, Ragg KE, Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Staron RS (2002) Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur J Appl Physiol 88:50–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Claflin DR, Larkin LM, Cederna PS, Horowitz JF, Alexander NB, Cole NM, Galecki AT, Chen S, Nyquist LV, Carlson BM, Faulkner JA, Ashton-Miller JA (2011) Effects of high- and low-velocity resistance training on the contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers from young and older humans. J Appl PhysiolGoogle Scholar
- Coyle EF, Feiring DC, Rotkis TC, Cote RW 3rd, Roby FB, Lee W, Wilmore JH (1981) Specificity of power improvements through slow and fast isokinetic training. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 51:1437–1442Google Scholar
- Green H, Goreham C, Ouyang J, Ball-Burnett M, Ranney D (1998) Regulation of fiber size, oxidative potential, and capillarization in human muscle by resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 276:R591–R596Google Scholar
- Hatfield DL, Kraemer WJ, Spiering BA, Hakkinen K, Volek JS, Shimano T, Spreuwenberg LP, Silvestre R, Vingren JL, Fragala MS, Gomez AL, Fleck SJ, Newton RU, Maresh CM (2006) The impact of velocity of movement on performance factors in resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 20:760–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hutchins K (1992) Superslow: the ultimate exercise protocol, 2nd edn. Media Support, CasselberryGoogle Scholar
- Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, Fleck SJ, Franklin B, Fry AC, Hoffman JR, Newton RU, Potteiger J, Stone MH, Ratamess NA, Triplett-McBride T (2002) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:364–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rana SR, Chleboun GS, Gilders RM, Hagerman FC, Herman JR, Hikida RS, Kushnick MR, Staron RS, Toma K (2008) Comparison of early phase adaptations for traditional strength and endurance, and low velocity resistance training programs in college-aged women. J Strength Cond Res 22:119–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Remaud A, Cornu C, Guevel A (2009) Agonist muscle activity and antagonist muscle co-activity levels during standardized isotonic and isokinetic knee extensions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol Off J Int Soc Electrophysiol Kinesiol 19:449–458Google Scholar
- Siegel JA, Gilders RM, Staron RS, Hagerman FC (2002) Human muscle power output during upper- and lower-body exercises. J Strength Cond Res Natl Strength Cond Assoc 16:173–178Google Scholar
- Westcott WL, Winett RA, Anderson ES, Wojcik JR, Loud RL, Cleggett E, Glover S (2001) Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength. J Sports Med Phys Fit 41:154–158Google Scholar