24-h urinary sodium to potassium ratio and its association with obesity in children and adolescents
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There are epidemiologic studies indicating a positive correlation between high sodium and low potassium intake and body mass index. Therefore, this study was conducted in a cross-sectional sample of Iranian children and adolescents to evaluate the link between 24-h urinary Na:K ratio and risk of obesity.
In this cross-sectional study, 374 participants aged 11–18 years were included. One 24-h urine sample was collected by each participant to estimate Na:K ratio. Anthropometric measurements were carried out and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and abdominal obesity as a waist:height ratio (WHtR) of more than 0.5.
As expected, 24-h urinary Na:K ratio showed significant associations with risk of overweight/obesity. Risk of adiposity assessed by WC and PBF was significantly associated with Na:K ratio after adjusting for SSBs consumption and calorie intake. Urinary Na:K ratio showed significant association with risk of adiposity assessed by WC only in girls in the highest tertile group with OR of 2.71 (95% CI 1.14–6.43), only after the addition of calorie intake. Adiposity assessed by PBF was only associated with Na:K ratio among boys with OR of 4.47 (95% CI 1.44–9.87) and 3.87 (95% CI 1.20–8.48), after adjusting for SSBs consumption and calorie intake, respectively.
Our findings suggest that reducing Na and increasing K intake could be used as a useful approach to lower the risk of obesity and associated burden of disease in Iran. However, more studies are warranted.
KeywordsSodium Potassium 24-h urine Overweight Obesity Children Adolescents Iran
This study was supported by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute. The authors would like to thank all the schools and students/parents who agreed to participate in this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
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