Moderate effects of apple juice consumption on obesity-related markers in obese men: impact of diet–gene interaction on body fat content
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The effect of polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice (CloA) consumption on plasma parameters related to the obesity phenotype and potential effects of interactions between CloA and allelic variants in obesity candidate genes were assessed in obese men.
In this controlled, randomized, and parallel study, n = 68, non-smoking, non-diabetic men with a BMI ≥27 kg/m2 received 750 mL/day CloA (802.5 mg polyphenols) or 750 mL/day control beverage (CB, isocaloric equivalent to CloA) for 4 weeks. Further, study participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PPARγ (rs1801282), UCP3 (rs1800849), IL-6 (rs1800795), FABP2 (rs1799883), INSIG2 (rs7566605), and PGC1 (rs8192678) genes. At the beginning and at the end of intervention plasma lipids, distinct adipokines and cytokines as well as anthropometric parameters were determined.
CloA compared to CB had no significant effect on plasma lipids, plasma adipokine and cytokine levels, BMI, and waist circumference. However, CloA consumption significantly reduced percent body fat compared to CB (∆ % body fat: CloA: −1.0 ± 1.3 vs. CB: −0.2 ± 0.9, p < 0.05). The IL-6-174 G/C polymorphism showed an interaction with body fat reduction induced by CloA. Solely in C/C, but not in G/C or G/G variants, a significant reduction in body fat after 4 weeks of CloA intervention was detectable.
The observed diet–gene interaction might be a first indication for the impact of individual genetic background on CloA-mediated bioactivity on obesity-associated comorbidities.
KeywordsPolyphenols Human intervention study Inflammation Adipokines Cytokines
This study was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Project grant -01-EA0505-). The technical staff of the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition at the Max Rubner-Institut is acknowledged for the valuable contribution. Further, we thank all study participants for taking part in this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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