Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 51–66 | Cite as

Holocene Climatic Optimum centennial-scale paleoceanography in the NE Aegean (Mediterranean Sea)

  • Maria V. TriantaphyllouEmail author
  • Alexandra Gogou
  • Margarita D. Dimiza
  • Sofia Kostopoulou
  • Constantine Parinos
  • Grigoris Roussakis
  • Maria Geraga
  • Ioanna Bouloubassi
  • Dominik Fleitmann
  • Vassilis Zervakis
  • Dimitris Velaoras
  • Antonia Diamantopoulou
  • Angeliki Sampatakaki
  • Vassilis Lykousis


Combined micropaleontological and geochemical analyses of the high-sedimentation gravity core M-4G provided new centennial-scale paleoceanographic data for sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean Sea during the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Sapropel layer S1a (10.2–8.0 ka) was deposited in dysoxic to oxic bottom waters characterized by a high abundance of benthic foraminiferal species tolerating surface sediment and/or pore water oxygen depletion (e.g., Chilostomella mediterranensis, Globobulimina affinis), and the presence of Uvigerina mediterranea, which thrives in oxic mesotrophic-eutrophic environments. Preservation of organic matter (OM) is inferred based on high organic carbon as well as loliolide and isololiolide contents, while the biomarker record and the abundances of eutrophic planktonic foraminifera document enhanced productivity. High inputs of terrigenous OM are attributed to north Aegean borderland riverine inputs. Both alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and δO18 G. bulloides records indicate cooling at 8.2 ka (S1a) and ~7.8 ka (S1 interruption). Sapropelic layer S1b (7.7–6.4 ka) is characterized by rather oxic conditions; abundances of foraminiferal species tolerant to oxygen depletion are very low compared with the U. mediterranea rise. Strongly fluctuating SSTs demonstrate repeated cooling and associated dense water formation, with a major event at 7.4 ka followed by cold spells at 7.0, 6.8, and 6.5 ka. The prominent rise of the carbon preference index within the S1b layer indicates the delivery of less degraded terrestrial OM. The increase of algal biomarkers, labile OM-feeding foraminifera and eutrophic planktonic species pinpoints an enhanced in situ marine productivity, promoted by more efficient vertical convection due to repeated cold events. The associated contributions of labile marine OM along with fresher terrestrial OM inputs after ~7.7 ka imply sources alternative/additional to the north Aegean riverine borderland sources for the influx of organic matter in the south Limnos Basin, plausibly related to the inflow of highly productive Marmara/Black Sea waters.


Benthic Foraminifera Planktonic Foraminifera Carbon Preference Index Holocene Climatic Optimum Online Electronic Supplementary Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was financially supported by the EU Marine ERA/MedEcos and EU/FP7 Perseus projects. We acknowledge constructive assessments by E. Malinverno and the journal editors.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest with third parties.

Supplementary material

367_2015_426_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (252 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 251 kb)
367_2015_426_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (168 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 167 kb)


  1. Abu-Zied RH, Rohling E, Jorissen FJ, Fontanier C, Casford JSL, Cooke S (2008) Benthic foraminiferal response to changes in bottom-water oxygenation and organic carbon flux in the eastern Mediterranean during LGM to Recent times. Mar Micropaleontol 67:46–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksu AE, Yaşar D, Mudie PJ, Gillespie H (1995) Late glacial-Holocene paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic evolution of the Aegean Sea: micropaleontological and stable isotopic evidence. Mar Micropaleontol 25:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aksu AE, Abrajano T, Mudie PJ, Yaşar D (1999) Organic geochemical and palynological evidence for terrigenous origin of the organic matter in Aegean Sea sapropel S1. Mar Geol 153:303–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aksu AE, Hiscott RN, Mudie PJ, Rochon A, Kaminski MA, Abrajano T, Yaşar D (2002) Persistent Holocene outflow from the Black Sea to the Eastern Mediterranean contradicts Noah’s Flood hypothesis. GSA Today 12:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alavi SN (1988) Late Holocene deep-sea benthic foraminifera from the Sea of Marmara. Mar Micropaleontol 13:213–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alley RB, Mayewski PA, Sowers T, Stuiver M, Taylor KC, Clark PU (1997) Holocene climatic instability: a prominent, widespread event 8200 yr ago. Geology 25:483–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alve E (1995) Benthic foraminifera response to estuarine pollution: a review. J Foram Res 25:190–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alve E, Murray JW (1999) Marginal marine environments of the Skagerrak and Kattegat: a baseline study of living (stained) benthic foraminiferal ecology. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 146:171–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahr A, Arz HW, Lamy F, Wefer G (2006) Late glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Black Sea, reconstructed with stable oxygen isotope records obtained on ostracod shells. Earth Planet Sci Lett 241:863–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernard JM, Sen Gupta BK (1999) Foraminifera of oxygen-depleted environments. In: Sen Gupta BK (ed) Modern Foraminifera. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 201–216Google Scholar
  11. Casford JSL, Rohling EJ, Abu-Zied R, Cooke S, Fontanier C, Leng M, Lykousis V (2002) Circulation changes and nutrient concentrations in the late Quaternary Aegean Sea: a nonsteady state concept for sapropel formation. Paleoceanography 17:1024–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Casford JSL, Rohling EJ, Abu-Zied RH, Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Leng MJ, Schmiedl G, Thomson J (2003) A dynamic concept for eastern Mediterranean circulation and oxygenation during sapropel formation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:103–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Casford JSL, Abu-Zied R, Rohling EJ, Cooke S, Fontanier C, Leng M, Millard A, Thomson J (2007) A stratigraphically controlled multiproxy chronostratigraphy for the eastern Mediterranean. Paleoceanography 22(4), PA4215. doi: 10.1029/2007PA001422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collister JW, Rieley G, Stern B, Eglinton G, Fry B (1994) Compound-specific δ13C analyses of leaf lipids from plants with differing carbon dioxide metabolisms. Org Geochem 21:619–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Lange GJ, Thomson J, Reitz A, Slomp CP, Principato MS, Erba E, Corselli C (2008) Synchronous basin-wide formation and redox-controlled preservation of a Mediterranean sapropel. Nature Geosci 1:606–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duchemin G, Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Barras C, Griveaud C (2007) Living small-sized (63–150 mm) foraminifera from mid-shelf to mid-slope environments in the Bay of Biscay. J Foram Res 37:12–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellis BF, Messina A (1940 to present) Catalogue of Foraminifera. Special publication, The American Museum of Natural History, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Facorellis Y, Maniatis Y, Kromer B (1998) Apparent 14C ages of marine mollusk shells from a Greek island: calculation of the marine reservoir effect in the Aegean Sea. Radiocarbon 40:963–973Google Scholar
  19. Fleitmann D, Cheng H, Badertscher S, Edwards RL, Mudelsee M, Göktürk OM, Fankhauser A, Pickering R, Raible CC, Matter A, Kramers J, Tuysuz O (2009) Timing and climatic impact of Greenland interstadials recorded in stalagmites from northern Turkey. Geophys Res Lett 36, L19707. doi: 10.1029/2009GL040050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Licari L, Alexandre P, Anschutz P, Carbonel P (2002) Live benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Bay of Biscay: faunal density, composition, and microhabitats. Deep-Sea Res I 49:751–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Chaillou G, Anschutz P, Grémare A, Griveaud C (2005) Live foraminiferal faunas from a 2800 m deep lower canyon station from the Bay of Biscay: faunal response to focusing of refractory organic matter. Deep-Sea Res I 52:1189–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Geslin E, Zaragosi S, Duchemin G, Laversin M, Gaultier M (2008a) Live and dead foraminiferal faunas from the Saint-Tropez Canyon (Bay of Fréjus): observations based on in situ and incubated cores. J Foram Res 38:137–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Lansard B, Mouret A, Buscail R, Schmidt S, Kerhervé P, Buron F, Zaragosi S, Hunault G, Ernoult E, Artero C, Anschutz P, Rabouille C (2008b) Live (stained) foraminiferal faunas from open slope environments separating submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): diversity, density and microhabitats. Deep-Sea Res I 55:1532–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fontanier C, Koho KA, Goñi-Urriza MS, Deflandre B, Galaup S, Ivanovsky A, Gayet N, Dennielou B, Grémare A, Bichon S, Gassie C, Anschutz P, Duran R, Reichart GJ (2014) Benthic foraminifera from the deep-water Niger delta (Gulf of Guinea): assessing present-day and past activity of hydrate pockmarks. Deep-Sea Res I 94:87–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frangoulis C, Psarra S, Zervakis V, Meador T, Mara P, Gogou A, Zervoudaki S, Giannakourou A, Pitta P, Lagaria A, Krasakopoulou E, Sioukou-Frangou I (2010) Connecting export fluxes to plankton food-web efficiency in the Black Sea waters inflowing into the Mediterranean Sea. J Plankt Res 32:1203–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Geraga M, Tsaila-Monopolis S, Ioakim C, Papatheodorou G, Ferentinos G (2000) An evaluation of paleoenvironmental changes during the last 18000 yr BP in the Myrtoon Basin, S.W. Aegean Sea. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 156:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Geraga M, Tsaila-Monopolis S, Ioakim C, Papatheodorou G, Ferentinos G (2005) Short-term climate changes in the southern Aegean Sea over the last 48,000 years. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 220:311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geraga M, Ioakim C, Lykousis V, Tsaila-Monopolis S, Mylona G (2010) The high resolution palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic history of the last 24,000 years in the central Aegean Sea, Greece. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 287:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Lykousis V, Arnaboldi M, Gaitani P, Meyers PA (2007) Organic geochemical evidence of abrupt late glacial-Holocene climate changes in the North Aegean Sea. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 256:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goktürk OM, Fleitmann D, Badertscher S, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Leuenberger M, Fankhauser A, Tüysüz O, Kramers J (2011) Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene: implications from the Sofular Cave record. Quat Sci Rev 30:2433–2445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grimm R, Maier-Reimer E, Mikolajewicz U, Schmiedl G, Müller-Navarra K, Adloff F, Grant KM, Ziegler M, Lourens LJ, Emeis K-C (2015) Late glacial initiation of Holocene eastern Mediterranean sapropel formation. Nature Commun 6:7099. doi: 10.1038/ncomms8099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hiscott RN, Aksu AE, Mudie PJ, Marret F, Abrajano T, Kaminski MA, Evans J, Çakiroglu AI, Yasar D (2007) A gradual drowning of the southwestern Black Sea shelf: evidence for a progressive rather than abrupt Holocene reconnection with the eastern Mediterranean Sea through the Marmara Sea Gateway. Quat Int 167–168:19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jorissen FJ, Barmawidjaja DM, Puskaric S, Van der Zwaan GJ (1992) Vertical distribution of benthic Foraminifera in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The relation with high organic flux. Mar Micropaleontol 19:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jorissen FJ, De Stigter HC, Widmark JGV (1995) A conceptual model explaining benthic foraminiferal microhabitats. Mar Micropaleontol 26:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kallel N, Paterne M, Duplessy JC, Vergnaud-Grazzini C, Pujol C, Labeyrie LD, Arnold M, Fontugne M, Pierre C (1997) Enhanced rainfall in the Mediterranean region during the last sapropel event. Oceanol Acta 20:697–712Google Scholar
  36. Katsouras G, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Emeis KC, Triantaphyllou M, Roussakis G, Lykousis V (2010) Organic carbon distribution and isotopic composition in three records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene. Org Geochem 41:935–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kotthoff U, Pross J, Muller UC, Peyron O, Schmiedl G, Schulz H, Bordon A (2008) Climate dynamics in the borderlands of the Aegean Sea during formation of sapropel S1 deduced from a marine pollen record. Quat Sci Rev 27:832–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kouli K, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Triantaphyllou MV, Ioakim C, Katsouras G, Roussakis G, Lykousis V (2012) Late postglacial paleoenvironmental change in the northeastern Mediterranean region: combined palynological and molecular biomarker evidence. Quat Int 261:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuhnt T, Schmiedl G, Ehrmann W, Hamann Y, Hemleben C (2007) Deep-sea ecosystem variability of the Aegean Sea during the past 22 kyr as revealed by benthic foraminifera. Mar Micropaleontol 64:141–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuhnt T, Schmiedl G, Ehrmann W, Hamann Y, Andersen N (2008) Stable isotopic composition of Holocene benthic foraminifers from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: past changes in productivity and deep water oxygenation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 268:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lagaria A, Psarra S, Gogou A, Tuğrul S, Christaki U (2013) Particulate and dissolved primary production along a pronounced hydrographic and trophic gradient (Turkish Straits System-NE Aegean Sea). J Mar Syst 119–120:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lascaratos A (1992) Hydrology of the Aegean sea. In: Charnock H (ed) Winds and currents of the Mediterranean Basin. NATO Advanced Science Institute. Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation in the Mediterranean Basin, vol 40. Harvard University, pp 313–334Google Scholar
  43. Loeblich AR, Tappan H (1987) Foraminiferal genera and their classification. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Loeblich AR, Tappan H (1994) Foraminifera of the Sahul Shelf and Timor Sea. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Washington, spec publ 31Google Scholar
  45. Lykousis V, Chronis G, Tselepides A, Price NB, Theocharis A, Siokou-Fragou I, van Wambeke F, Danovaro R, Stavrakakis S, Duineveld G, Georgopoulos D, Ignatiades L, Souvermezoglou A, Voutsinou-Taliadouri F (2002) Major outputs of the recent multidisciplinary biogeochemical researches undertaken in the Aegean Sea. J Mar Syst 33–34:313–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Major CO, Goldstein SL, Ryan WBF, Lericolais G, Piotrowski AM, Hajdas I (2006) The co-evolution of Black Sea level and composition through the last deglaciation and its paleoclimatic significance. Quat Sci Rev 25:2031–2047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marino G, Rohling EJ, Sangiorgi F, Hayes A, Casford JL, Lotter AF, Kucera M, Brinkhuis H (2009) Early and middle Holocene in the Aegean Sea: interplay between high and low latitude climate variability. Quat Sci Rev 28:3246–3262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Marlowe IT, Brassell SC, Eglinton G, Green JC (1984) Long chain unsaturated ketones and esters in living algae and marine sediments. Org Geochem 6:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meador TB, Gogou A, Spyres G, Herndl GJ, Krasakopoulou E, Psarra S, Yokokawa T, De Corte D, Zervakis V, Repeta DJ (2010) Biogeochemical relationships between ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter and picoplankton activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res II 57:1460–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Menzel D, van Bergen PF, Schouten S, Sinninghe Damsté JS (2003) Reconstruction of changes in export productivity during Pliocene sapropel deposition: a biomarker approach. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mercone D, Thomson J, Croudace IW, Siani G, Paterne M, Troelstra S (2000) Duration of S1, the most recent sapropel in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, as indicated by AMS radiocarbon and geochemical evidence. Paleoceanography 15:336–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mercone D, Thomson J, Abu-Zied RH, Croudace IW, Rohling EJ (2001) High resolution geochemical and micropaleontological profiling of the most recent eastern Mediterranean sapropel. Mar Geol 177:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mertens KN, Bradley LR, Takano Y, Mudie PJ, Marret F, Aksu AE, Hiscott RN, Verleye TJ, Mousing EA, Smyrnova LL, Bagheri S, Mansor M, Pospelova V, Matsuoka K (2012) Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length. Quat Sci Rev 39:45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meyers PA, Arnaboldi M (2008) Paleoceanographic implications of nitrogen and organic carbon isotopic excursions in mid-Pleistocene sapropels from the Tyrrhenian and Levantine Basins, Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 266:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mojtahid M, Jorissen FJ, Garcia J, Schiebel R, Michel E, Eynaud F, Gillet H, Cremer M, Diz Ferreiro P, Siccha M, Howa H (2013) High resolution Holocene record in the southeastern Bay of Biscay: global versus regional climate signals. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 377:28–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Müller PJ, Kirst G, Ruhland G, von Storch I, Rosell-Melé A (1998) Calibration of the alkenone paleotemperature index U37 K′ based on core-tops from the eastern South Atlantic and the global ocean (60°N–60°S). Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:1757–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Myers PG, Rohling EJ (2000) Modeling a 200 yr interruption of the Holocene Sapropel S1. Quat Res 53:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ohkouchi N, Kawamura K, Kawahata H, Taira A (1997) Latitudinal distributions of terrestrial biomarkers in the sediments from the Central Pacific. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:1911–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pavlopoulos K, Kapsimalis V, Theodorakopoulou K, Panagiotopoulos IP (2012) Vertical displacement trends in the Aegean coastal zone (NE Mediterranean) during the Holocene assessed by geo-archaeological data. The Holocene 22:717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pavlopoulos K, Fouache E, Sidiropoulou M, Triantaphyllou M, Vouvalidis K, Syrides G, Gonnet A, Greco E (2013) Palaeoenvironmental evolution and sea-level changes in the coastal area of NE Lemnos Island (Greece) during the Holocene. Quat Int 308–309:80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pujol C, Vergnaud Grazzini C (1995) Distribution of live planktic foraminifers as related to regional hydrography and productive systems of the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Micropaleontol 25:187–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Bronk Ramsey C, Buck CE, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Friedrich M, Grootes PM, Guilderson TP, Haflidason H, Hajdas I, Hatté C, Heaton TJ, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kaiser KF, Kromer B, Manning SW, Niu M, Reimer RW, Richards DA, Scott EM, Southon JR, Turney CSM, van der Plicht J (2013) IntCal13 and MARINE13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0-50000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55:1869–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Repeta DJ (1989) Carotenoid diagenesis in recent marine sediments. II. Degradation of fucoxanthin to loliolide. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:699–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Retailleau S, Eynaud F, Mary Y, Abdallah V, Schiebel R, Howa H (2012) Canyon heads and river plumes: how might they influence neritic planktonic foraminifera communities in the Bay of Biscay? J Foram Res 42:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rigual-Hernández AS, Sierro FJ, Bárcena MA, Flores JA, Heussner S (2012) Seasonal and interannual changes of planktic foraminiferal fluxes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) and their implications for paleoceanographic studies: two 12-year sediment trap records. Deep-Sea Res I 66:26–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rohling EJ, Pälike H (2005) Centennial-scale climate cooling with a sudden event around 8,200 years ago. Nature 434:975–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rohling EJ, Jorissen FJ, Vergnaud-Grazzini C, Zachariasse WJ (1993) Northern Levantine and Adriatic Quaternary planktic foraminifera; reconstruction of paleoenvironmental gradients. Mar Micropaleontol 21:191–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rohling EJ, Jorissen FJ, De Stigter HC (1997) 200 year interruption of Holocene sapropel formation in the Adriatic Sea. J Micropalaeontol 16:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rohling EJ, Cane TR, Cooke S, Sprovieri M, Bouloubassi I, Emeis KC, Schiebel R, Kroon D, Jorissen FJ, Lorre A, Kemp AES (2002a) African monsoon variability during the previous interglacial maximum. Earth Planet Sci Lett 202:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rohling EJ, Mayewski PA, Abu-Zied RH, Casford JSL, Hayes A (2002b) Holocene atmosphere–ocean interactions: records from Greenland and the Aegean Sea. Clim Dyn 18:587–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rohling EJ, Marino G, Grant KM (2015) Mediterranean climate and oceanography, and the periodic development of anoxic events (sapropels). Earth Sci Rev 143:62–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rosenthal Y, Morley A, Barras C, Katz ME, Jorissen F, Reichart GJ, Linsley BK (2011) Temperature calibration of Mg/Ca ratios in the intermediate water benthic foraminifer Hyalinea balthica. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 12, Q04003. doi: 10.1029/2010GC003333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rossignol-Strick M, Nesteroff W, Olive P, Vergnaud-Grazzini C (1982) After the deluge: Mediterranean stagnation and sapropel formation. Nature 295:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roussakis G, Karageorgis AP, Conispoliatis N, Lykousis V (2004) Last glacial–Holocene sediment sequences in N. Aegean basins: structure, accumulation rates and clay mineral distribution. Geo-Mar Lett 24:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ryan WBF, Major CO, Lericolais G, Goldstein SL (2003) Catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 31:525–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schiebel R, Waniek J, Bork M, Hemleben C (2001) Planktic foraminiferal production stimulated by chlorophyll redistribution and entrainment of nutrients. Deep-Sea Res I 48:721–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schiebel R, Zeltner A, Treppke UF, Waniek JJ, Bollmann J, Rixen T, Hemleben C (2004) Distribution of diatoms, coccolithophores and planktic foraminifers along a trophic gradient during SW monsoon in the Arabian Sea. Mar Micropaleontol 51:345–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schmiedl G, de Bovée F, Buscail R, Charrière B, Hemleben C, Medernach L, Picon P (2000) Trophic control of benthic foraminiferal abundance and microhabitat in the bathyal Gulf of Lions, western Mediterranean Sea. Mar Micropaleontol 40:167–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schmiedl G, Kuhnt T, Ehrmann W, Emeis KC, Hamann Y, Kotthoff U, Dulski P, Pross J (2010) Climatic forcing of eastern Mediterranean deep-water formation and benthic ecosystems during the past 22,000 years. Quat Sci Rev 29:3006–3020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sen Gupta BK, Machain-Castillo ML (1993) Benthic foraminifera on oxygen-poor habitats. Mar Micropaleontol 20:183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Soulet G, Ménota G, Lericolais G, Bard E (2011) A revised calendar age for the last reconnection of the Black Sea to the global ocean. Quat Sci Rev 30:1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sperling M, Schmiedl G, Hemleben C, Emeis KC, Erlenkeuser H, Grootes PM (2003) Black Sea impact on the formation of eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1? Evidence from the Marmara Sea. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ (1993) Extended C-14 data-base and revised Calib 3.0 C-14 age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35:215–230Google Scholar
  85. Tachikawa K, Vidal L, Cornuault M, Garcia M, Pothin A, Sonzogni C, Bard E, Menot G, Revel M (2015) Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation inferred from the conditions of S1 sapropel deposition. Clim Past 11:855–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tao S, Xing L, Luo X, Wei H, Liu Y, Zhao M (2012) Alkenone distribution in surface sediments of the southern Yellow Sea and implications for the U37K ' thermometer. Geo-Mar Lett 32:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Theocharis A, Georgopoulos D (1993) Dense water formation over the Samothraki and Limnos Plateaux in the North Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). Cont Shelf Res 13:919–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Theocharis A, Krokos G, Velaoras D, Korres G (2014) An internal mechanism driving the alternation of the Eastern Mediterranean Dense/Deep Water Sources. In: Borzelli GLE, Gačić M, Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: temporal variability and spatial patterns. Geophys Monogr 202:113–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Triantaphyllou MV (2014) Coccolithophore assemblages during the Holocene Climatic Optimum in the NE Mediterranean (Aegean and northern Levantine Seas, Greece): paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications. Quat Int 345:56–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Triantaphyllou MV, Ziveri P, Gogou A, Marino G, Lykousis V, Bouloubassi I, Emeis KC, Kouli K, Dimiza M, Rosell-Mele A, Papanikolaou M, Katsouras G, Nunez N (2009a) Late Glacial-Holocene climate variability at the south-eastern margin of the Aegean Sea. Mar Geol 266:182–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Triantaphyllou MV, Antonarakou A, Kouli K, Dimiza M, Kontakiotis G, Papanikolaou M, Ziveri P, Mortyn G, Lianou V, Lykousis V, Dermitzakis MD (2009b) Late Glacial–Holocene ecostratigraphy of the south-eastern Aegean Sea, based on plankton and pollen assemblages. Geo-Mar Lett 29:249–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Triantaphyllou MV, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Dimiza M, Kouli K, Roussakis G, Kotthoff U, Emeis KC, Papanikolaou M, Athanasiou M, Parinos K, Ioakim C, Lykousis V (2014) Evidence for a warm and humid Mid-Holocene episode in the Aegean and northern Levantine Seas (Greece, NE Mediterranean). Reg Environ Change 14:1697–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Velaoras D, Lascaratos A (2005) Deep water mass characteristics and interannual variability in the North and Central Aegean Sea. J Mar Syst 53:59–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Velaoras D, Kassis D, Perivoliotis L, Pagonis P, Hondronasios A, Nittis K (2013) Temperature and salinity variability in the Greek Seas based on POSEIDON stations time series: preliminary results. Med Mar Sci 14:5–18Google Scholar
  95. Velaoras D, Krokos G, Nittis K, Theocharis A (2014) Dense intermediate water outflow from the Cretan Sea: a salinity driven, recurrent phenomenon, connected to thermohaline circulation changes. J Geophys Res Oceans 119(8):4797–4820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vidal L, Ménot G, Joly C, Bruneton H, Rostek F, Çağatay MN, Major C, Bard E (2010) Hydrology in the Sea of Marmara during the last 23 ka: implications for timing of Black Sea connections and sapropel deposition. Paleoceanography 25, PA1205. doi: 10.1029/2009PA001735 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Volkman JK (1986) A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter. Org Geochem 9:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zachariasse WJ, Jorissen FJ, Perissoratis C, Rohling EJ, Tsapralis V (1997) Late Quaternary foraminiferal changes and the nature of sapropel S1 in Skopelos Basin. Proc 5th Hell Symp Oceanogr Fish 1:391–394Google Scholar
  99. Zervakis V, Georgopoulos D, Drakopoulos PG (2000) The role of the North Aegean in triggering the recent Eastern Mediterranean climatic changes. J Geophys Res 105:26103–26116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zervakis V, Georgopoulos D, Karageorgis AP, Theocharis A (2004) On the response of the Aegean Sea to climatic variability: a review. Int J Climatol 24:1845–1858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zodiatis G (1994) Advection of the Black Sea Water in the North Aegean Sea. Glob Atmosph Ocean Syst 2:41–60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria V. Triantaphyllou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexandra Gogou
    • 2
  • Margarita D. Dimiza
    • 1
  • Sofia Kostopoulou
    • 1
  • Constantine Parinos
    • 2
  • Grigoris Roussakis
    • 2
  • Maria Geraga
    • 3
  • Ioanna Bouloubassi
    • 4
  • Dominik Fleitmann
    • 5
  • Vassilis Zervakis
    • 6
  • Dimitris Velaoras
    • 2
  • Antonia Diamantopoulou
    • 3
  • Angeliki Sampatakaki
    • 2
  • Vassilis Lykousis
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Geology and GeoenvironmentNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchInstitute of OceanographyAnavyssosGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Marine Geology and Physical Oceanography, Department of GeologyUniversity of PatrasRion-PatraGreece
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Océanographie et du Climat, Expérimentation et Approche NumériqueUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParis Cedex 05France
  5. 5.Centre for Past Climate Change, Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  6. 6.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of the AegeanMytilene-LesvosGreece

Personalised recommendations