The social context of a territorial dispute differentially influences the way individuals in breeding pairs coordinate their aggressive tactics
- 369 Downloads
In diverse species, individuals coordinate behavior to accomplish shared goals or tasks. Such coordination, however, often occurs selectively, and the contextual information animals use to determine when they coordinate and when they do not is unclear. We investigate this issue in the highly territorial downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) by exploring how individuals within a social breeding pair differentially modulate coordinated aggressive responses during graded simulated territorial intrusions (STIs). Analyses show that resident pairs mount a more robust aggressive response to STIs that represent a greater threat. Moreover, in this social context, pair members produce contact vocalizations in a way that predicts their partner’s aggressive behavior. We also show that, when presented with a low threat, individuals that first respond to intrusions decrease their aggressive output once their partner attends to the stimulus; the partner, in turn, increases their levels of aggressive behavior. This does not occur in high-threat STIs, where both partners maintain high levels of aggression throughout the entire encounter. Together, these results show that individuals within a pair flexibly adjust their aggressive tactics in response to different social competitive contexts, and this includes adjusting the way in which individuals coordinate certain aspects of their agonistic repertoire. We speculate that this ability reflects an adaptive mechanism that allows individuals to fine-tune territorial tactics to reduce overall costs of aggression.
Although research has demonstrated that individuals often coordinate their behavior to accomplish common tasks, little is known about the factors that determine when such coordination occurs and when it does not. We address this issue for the first time in the highly territorial downy woodpecker by testing how the level of threat associated with a territorial interaction influences the coordination of defensive behavior. We find that, when facing intruders that pose a greater threat, residents adjust levels of aggressive output in response to the number of vocalizations produced by their breeding partner. By contrast, this relationship is not observed when pairs face intruders that pose a relatively lower threat. Our data therefore provide striking evidence that coordination in defensive tactics depends on the residents’ appraisal of the social context, such that fiercer competition is associated with greater behavioral coordination.
KeywordsSocial behavior Territorial aggression Cooperation Monogamy Downy woodpecker
We thank Johnny Peterson, Ashton Caudle, and Mia Harris for their assistance in collecting and analyzing the data. We thank the volunteer members of the Forsyth County Audubon Society who allowed us to collect the data on their property and who helped implement the study. We thank Ben Pearlman and the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. Wake Forest University institutional funds (to MJF) support this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Lastly, this article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Conner RN (1980) Foraging habitats of woodpeckers in Southwestern Virginia. J Fields Ornithol 51:119–127Google Scholar
- Dodenhoff DJ (2002) An analysis of acoustic communication within the social system of downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens). PhD Thesis, Ohio State UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Graber JW, Graber RR, Kirk EL (1977) Illinois birds: Picidae. Ill Nat Hist Surv Biol Notes 102:15–21Google Scholar
- Jackson JA, Ouellet HR (2002) Downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens). In: Poole A, Gill F (eds) The birds of North America. The Birds of North America Inc., PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Kilham L (1974) Early breeding season behavior of downy woodpeckers. Wilson J Ornithol 86:407–418Google Scholar
- Ritchison G (1999) Downy woodpecker. Stackpole Books, MechanicsburgGoogle Scholar
- Schroeder RL (1983) Habitat suitability index models: downy woodpecker. US Dept Int, Fish Wildl Serv, FWS/OBS-82/1038, US Department of the Interior, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Short LL (1974) Habits and interactions of North American three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus and Picoides tridactylus). Am Mus Novit 2547:1–47Google Scholar
- Tabachnick NG, Fidell LS (1996) Using multivariate statistics, 3rd edn. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Wiebe KL, Koenig WD, Martin K (2007) Costs and benefits of nest reuse versus excavation in cavity-nesting birds. Ann Zool Fenn 44:209–217Google Scholar
- Wilkins HD, Ritchison G (1999) Drumming and tapping by red-bellied woodpeckers: description and possible causation. J Fields Ornithol 70:578–586Google Scholar
- Zar JH (2010) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar