Combined effect of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lag phase and the non-Saccharomyces consortium to enhance wine fruitiness and complexity
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Non-Saccharomyces (NS) species that are either naturally present in grape must or added in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae may impact the wine’s chemical composition and sensory properties. NS yeasts are prevailing during prefermentation and early stages of alcoholic fermentation. However, obtaining the correct balance between S. cerevisiae and NS species is still a critical issue: if S. cerevisiae outcompetes the non-Saccharomyces, it may minimize their impact, while conversely if NS take over S. cerevisiae, it may result in stuck or sluggish fermentations. Here, we propose an original strategy to promote the non-Saccharomyces consortium during the prefermentation stage while securing fermentation completion: the use of a long lag phase S. cerevisiae. Various fermentations in a Sauvignon Blanc with near isogenic S. cerevisiae displaying short or long lag phase were compared. Fermentations were performed with or without a consortium of five non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Metschnikowia spp., Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Pichia kluyveri), mimicking the composition of natural NS community in grape must. The sensorial analysis highlighted the positive impact of the long lag phase on the wine fruitiness and complexity. Surprisingly, the presence of NS modified only marginally the wine composition but significantly impacted the lag phase of S. cerevisiae. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but it is the first time that a study suggests that the wine composition can be affected by the lag phase duration per se. Further experiments should address the suitability of the use of long lag phase S. cerevisiae in winemaking.
KeywordsNon-conventional yeast Prefermentation stage Wine Lag phase
WA, JC, VM, BCC, MBer, PM, and IMP conceived or designed the study. WA, AZ, CMS, MBel, and PM performed research, WA, JC, VM, BCC, MBel, PM, and IMP analyzed the data. WA, PM, and IMP wrote the paper.
This work was founded by Nouvelle Aquitaine Region, Biolaffort, and Pernod-Ricard companies.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
Warren Albertin, Cécile Miot-Sertier, Marina Bely, and Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarede declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Adrien Zimmer, Margaux Bernard, Joana Coulon, Virginie Moine, and Philippe Marullo are affiliated with Biolaffort company, and Benoit Colonna-Ceccaldi is affiliated with Pernod-Ricard company.
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