Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 101, Issue 4, pp 1593–1604 | Cite as

Complete mitochondrial genome of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici: features and evolution

  • Shu Zhang
  • Xiu-Na Wang
  • Xiao-Ling Zhang
  • Xing-Zhong Liu
  • Yong-Jie ZhangEmail author
Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics


Endophytic fungi (EF) live within plants and have profound impacts on plant communities. They are astonishingly diverse but poorly studied at the genome level. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the EF Pestalotiopsis fici, annotated and compared it with those of other relatives to better understand the evolution of the EF lineage. Except for standard fungal mitochondrial genes, the 69,529-bp circular mitogenome of P. fici harbors 18 introns acquired possibly through lateral transfer from other fungi and nine free-standing open reading frames with some scarcely seen in fungal mitogenomes. BLAST analysis detected no obvious duplication events of large fragments between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the fungus. Transcription analyses validated the expression of all mitochondrial genes, while most genes showed higher expression on rice than in two other media. The mitogenome of P. fici is highly syntenic with the Xylariales species Annulohypoxylon stygium and the endophyte Epichloe festucae var. lolii, but lacks synteny with another endophyte Penicillium polonicum. This study reports the first mitogenome of Pestalotiopsis and the third published mitogenome from an EF and provides insights into the evolution of the EF lineage.


Pestalotiopsis fici Mitochondrial genome Endophyte Xylariales RNA-seq 



This study was funded by the National Science Foundation of China (81102759), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (2014021030-2, 201601D011065), the Fund Program for the Scientific Activities of Selected Returned Overseas Professionals in Shanxi Province, and the Special Fund for Large Scientific Instruments and Equipments in Shanxi Province. The authors thank Xiaoqing Yang for her help in drawing the circular mitochondrial map.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2017_8112_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (639 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 639 kb)
253_2017_8112_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (50 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 49 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shu Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiu-Na Wang
    • 2
  • Xiao-Ling Zhang
    • 3
  • Xing-Zhong Liu
    • 3
  • Yong-Jie Zhang
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Applied ChemistryShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.Fujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of MicrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Life SciencesShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina

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