Genotypic Characterization of Phage-Typed Indigenous Soybean Bradyrhizobia and Their Host Range Symbiotic Effectiveness
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Analysis of genetic diversity among indigenous rhizobia and its symbiotic effectiveness with soybean cultivar is important for development of knowledge about rhizobial ecology. In India, little is known about the genetic resources and diversity of rhizobia nodulating soybean. Indigenous bradyrhizobia isolated from root nodules of soybean plants, collected from traditional cultivating regions of two states (Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh) of India, were screened for bacteriophage sensitivity to identify successful broad host range symbiotic effectivity. Of 172 rhizobial isolates, 91 showed sensitivities to eight lytic phages and form ten groups on the basis of sensitivity patterns. The genetic diversity of 23 isolates belonging to different phage groups was assessed along with that of strains USDA123 and USDA94 by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rDNA, intergenic spacer (IGS) (16S–23S rDNA), and DnaK regions. RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA formed 5 groups, whereas 19 and 9 groups were revealed by IGS and the DnaK genes, respectively. The IGS regions showed many amplified polymorphic bands. Nine isolates which revealed high RFLP polymorphism in the abovementioned regions (16S rRNA, IGS, DnaK) were used for 16S rRNA sequence analyses. The results indicate that taxonomically, all isolates were related to Rhizobium etli, Bradyrhizobium spp., and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense. The doubling time of isolates varied from 9 h (MPSR155) to 16.2 h (MPSR068) in YM broth. Five isolates which did not show cross infectivity with isolated phage strains were studied for symbiotic efficiency. All isolates showed broad host range symbiotic effectiveness forming effective nodules on Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Vigna unguiculata, and Cajanus cajan. The present study provides information on genetic diversity and host range symbiosis of indigenous soybean rhizobia typed by different phages.
KeywordsRhizobium Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Broad Host Range Phage Typing Rhizobial Isolate
This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, (grant no. BT/PR7251/AGR/21/209/2006).
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