Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 12, pp 2511–2520 | Cite as

On-line coupling of fizzy extraction with gas chromatography

  • Hao-Chun Yang
  • Pawel L. UrbanEmail author
Paper in Forefront


Fizzy extraction (FE) is carried out by first dissolving a carrier gas (typically, carbon dioxide) in a liquid sample at a moderate pressure (typically, 150 kPa) and then rapidly depressurizing the sample. The depressurization leads to instant release of numerous microbubbles in the liquid matrix. The abruptly released gas extracts the volatile solutes and elutes them toward a detector in a short period of time. Here, we describe on-line coupling of FE with gas chromatography (GC). The two platforms are highly compatible and could be combined following several modifications of the interface and adjustments of the extraction sequence. The analytes are released within a short period of time (1.5 s). Thus, the chromatographic peaks are satisfactorily narrow. There is no need to trap the extracted analytes in a loop or on a sorbent, as it is done in standard headspace and microextraction methods. The approach requires only minor sample pretreatment. The main parameters of the FE-GC-mass spectrometry (MS) method were optimized. The results of FE were compared with those of headspace flushing (scavenging headspace vapors), and the enhancement factors were in the order of ~ 2 to 13 (for various analytes). The limits of detection for some of the tested analytes were lower in the proposed FE-GC-MS method than in FE combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS. The method was further tested in analyses of selected real samples (apple flavor milk, mixed fruit and vegetable juice drink, mango flavored drink, pineapple green tea, toothpaste, and yogurt).

Graphical abstract


Extraction Gas chromatography Sample preparation Volatile organic compounds 



We acknowledge the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan (grant numbers 104-2628-M-007-006-MY4 and 107-3017-F-007-002), the National Chiao Tung University, the National Tsing Hua University, the Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, and the Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project established by the Ministry of Education (MOE), Taiwan.


Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan (grant numbers 104-2628-M-007-006-MY4 and 107–3017-F-007-002)

Ministry of Education (MOE), Taiwan

Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters

National Tsing Hua University

National Chiao Tung University

Compliance with ethical standards

All authors contributed to the work, read the manuscript, and agreed to be listed as an author.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2019_1755_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.7 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1787 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of MattersNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan

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