The changes in both the thermoregulatory responses and brain somatostatin (SS) levels produced by ambient temperature (T a) changes were assessed in rats after they had been equilibrated to each of theT a for a period of about 90 min. Cold exposure, in addition to elevating hypothalamic SS-levels, led to increased metabolism and cutaneous vasoconstriction atT a=8° C. In contrast, heat exposure, in addition to lowering hypothalamic SS-levels, resulted in decreased metabolism and cutaneous vasodilation atT a=30° C. Rats were chronically implanted with a hypothalamic cannula to allow intrahypothalamic injection of SS on the conscious rats. Direct administration of SS (0.1–0.3 μg) into the preoptic anterior hypothalamic area caused a dose-related rise in colon temperature at threeT a tested. The SS-induced hyperthermia was produced by increased metabolism atT a=8° C, whereas atT a=30° C, it was caused by cutaneous vasoconstriction. AtT a=22° C, the hyperthermia was caused by increased metabolism and cutaneous vasoconstriction. Systemic administration of cysteamine, in addition to lowering hypothalamic SS-levels, produced a dose-related fall in colon temperature atT a of 8°C and 22°C. The hypothermia induced by cysteamine was produced by decreased metabolism atT a=8° C, whereas atT a=22° C, it was caused by both decreased metabolism and cutaneous vasodilation. The data indicate that the hypothalamic SS-levels mediate normal body temperature responses in rats.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Benoit R, Bohlen P, Brazeau P, Ling N, Guillemin R (1980) Isolation and characterization of rat pancreatic somatostatin. J Endocrinol 107:2127–2129
Benoit R, Bohlen P, Ling N, Briskin A, Brazeau, Ying SY, Guillemin R (1982) Presence of somatostatin-28 (1–12) in hypothalamus and pancrease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:917–921
Brown MR, Vale W (1980) Peptides and thermoregulation. In: Cox B, Lomax P, Milton AS, Schonbaum E (eds) Thermoregulatory mechanisms and their therapeutic implications. Karger, Basel New York, pp 186–194
Brown MR, Ling N, Rivier J (1981a) Somatostatin-28, somatostatin-14 and somatostatin analogs: effects of thermoregulation. Brain Res 214:127–135
Brown MR, Tache Y, Rivier J, Pittman Q (1981b) Peptides and regulation of body temperature. In: Martin JB, Reichlin S, Bick KL (eds) Neurosecretion and brain peptides: complication for brain functions and neurological diseases. Raven Press, New York, pp 397–407
Brown MR, Fischer L, Sawchenko PE, Swanson LW, Vale W (1983) Biological effects of cysteamine: relationship to somatostatin depletion. Regul Pept 5:163–179
Brown MR, Fischer L, Mason RT, Rivier J, Vale W (1985) Neurological actions of cysteamine. Fed Proc 44:2556–2560
Cohn ML (1975) Cyclic AMP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin: key factors in the regulation of the duration of narcosis. Prog Anesthesiol 1:485–487
Epelbaum J, Brazeau P, Tsang D, Brawer J, Martin JB (1977) Subcellular distribution of radioimmunoassayable somatostatin in rat brain. Brain Res 126:309–323
Hainsworth RR (1967) Saliva spreading, activity and body temperature regulation in the rat. Am J Physiol 212:1288–1295
Ho LT, Lam HC, Wang JT, Tang KT, Perng JC, Liu YF, Chen RL (1986) Establishment of a radioimmunoassay of somatostatin in human plasma and in rat hypothalamus. Chin J Physiol 29:91–103
Hökfelt TS, Efendic S, Johansson RL, Arimura A (1974) Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin (growth hormone release inhibiting factor) in the guinea pig. Brain Res 80:165–169
Keyley CF, Miller RP, Berman MC, Schally AV (1981) Depolarization and ionophore-induced release of octacosa somatostatin from stalk median eminence synaptosomes. Science 213:913–915
König JF, Klippel RA (1963) The rat brain: a stereotaxic atlas of the forebrain and lower parts of the brain stem. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore
Lin MT (1982) Metabolic, respiratory, vasomotor and body temperature responses to TRH, angiotensin II, substance P, neurotensin, somatostatin, LHRH, beta-endorphin, oxytocin or vasopressin in the rat. Adv Biosci 38:229–251
Lin MT (1984) Hypothalamic mechanism of thermoregulation in the rat: neurochemical aspects. In: Hales JRS (ed.) Thermal physiology. Raven Press, New York, pp 113–118
Lin MT, Chern YF, Liu GG, Chang TC (1979) Studies on thermoregulation in the rat. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China (B) 3:46–52
Lin MT, Wu JJ, Chandra A, Tsay BL (1982) A norepinephrine-cyclic AMP link in the hypothalamic pathways which mediate fever induced by endotoxin and prostaglandin E-2 in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 222:251–257
Nemeroff CB, Osbahr AJ, Ervin GM, Prange AJ (1974) Alteration in nociception and body temperature after intracisternal administration of neurotensin, beta-endorphin, other peptides, and morphine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5368–5371
Reichlin S (1983) Somatostatin. In: Krieger DT, Brownstein MJ, Martin JB (eds) Brain peptides. Wiley, New York, pp 712–752
Richard I, Richter D (1984) Cell-free synthesized precursor to somatostatin-28 from the rat hypothalamus. Brain Res 292:93–98
Tsai CF, Lin MT (1987) Pain sensitivity, thermal capability and brain monoamine turnover in hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol 253:R910-R916
Yogesh CP, Reichlin S (1978) Somatostatin in hypothalamus, extrahypothalamic brain and peripheral tissue of the rat. J Endocrinol 102:523–530
About this article
Cite this article
Lin, M.T., Uang, W.N., Ho, L.T. et al. Somatostatin: a hypothalamic transmitter for thermoregulation in rats. Pflugers Arch. 413, 528–532 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00594185
- Ambient temperature