Harmful and Beneficial Activities of Immunological Adjuvants
- Duncan E. S. Stewart-Tull
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There are no officially recognized regulations for the design and toxicity testing of adjuvants or adjuvant formulations; the former are also referred to as immunomodulators and immunopotentiators. At the “Immunological Adjuvants and Vaccines” meeting held in Greece in 1988, however, immunoadjuvant researchers discussed experimental toxicological tests that might be used to monitor new immunomodulators (1). The usefulness of these tests for the range of immunomodulators and adjuvant formulations was examined over a 2-yr period and subsequently, at the next NATO meeting in 1990, further recommendations were made (2). Although as yet, no final agreement has been reached and a variety of tests are still in use.
- Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. (1989) Recommendations for the assessment of adjuvants (immuno-potentiators), in Immunological Adjuvants and Vaccines (Gregoriadis, G., Allison, A. C., and Poste, G., eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 213–226.
- Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. (1991) The assessment and use of adjuvants, in Vaccines (Gregoriadis, G., Allison, A. C., and Poste, G., eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 85–92. CrossRef
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- Wardlaw, A. C. and McCartney, A. C. (1985) Endotoxic activities of lipopolysac-charides, in Immunology of the bacterial cell envelope (Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. and Davies, M., eds.), Wiley, Chichester, pp. 203–238.
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- Kensil, C. R., Patel, U., Lennick, M., and Marciani, D. (1991) Structure and characterization of saponins with adjuvant activity from Quillaja saponaria Molina cortex. J. Immunol. 146, 431–437.
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- World Health Organization (1976) Immunological adjuvants. Tech. Rep. Ser. 595, 3.
- Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. and Jones, A. C. (1992) Adjuvants should not induce allergic reactions to protein antigens. FEMS Lett. 100, 489–496.
- Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. (1995) Freund-type mineral oil adjuvant emulsions, in The Theory and Practical Application of Adjuvants (Stewart-Tull, D. E. S., ed.), Wiley, Chichester, pp. 1–19.
- Davenport, F. M. (1968) Seventeen years experience with mineral oil adjuvant influenza virus vaccines. Ann. Allergy 26, 288–292.
- Stewart-Tull, D. E. S., Shimono T., Kotani S., and Knights, B. A. (1976) Immunosuppressive effect in mycobacterial adjuvant emulsions of mineral oils containing low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 52, 118–128. CrossRef
- Pearson, C. M. (1956) Development of arthritis, periarthritis and periostitis in rats given adjuvant. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 91, 95–101.
- European Community (1989) The rules governing medicinal products in the European Community, Vol. III, Guidelines on the quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products for human use. CB-55-89-293-EN-C.
- Harmful and Beneficial Activities of Immunological Adjuvants
- Book Title
- Vaccine Adjuvants
- Book Subtitle
- Preparation Methods and Research Protocols
- pp 29-48
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Methods in Molecular Medicine™
- Series Volume
- Series ISSN
- Springer New York
- Copyright Holder
- Humana Press
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