Chapter

Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics

Volume 14 of the series Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation pp 119-139

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Using Phylogenetic Dissimilarities Among Sites for Biodiversity Assessments and Conservation

Abstract

The PD phylogenetic diversity measure provides a measure of biodiversity that reflects variety at the level of features, among species or other taxa. PD is based on a simple model which assumes that shared ancestry explains shared features. PD provides a family of calculations that operate as if we were directly counting up features of taxa. PD-dissimilarity or phylogenetic beta diversity compares the branches/features represented by two different areas. We also can consider a companion model, which shifts the focus to shared habitat/environment among taxa as the explanation of shared features, including those features not explained by shared ancestry and PD. That model means that PD-dissimilarities, among sampled and unsampled sites, can be predicted using a regression method applied to distances in an environmental-gradients space. However, PD-based conservation planning requires more than the dissimilarities among all sites, in order to make decisions informed by gains and losses of branches/features. The companion model also suggests how to transform dissimilarities to provide these needed estimates. This ED (“Environmental Diversity”) method out-performs other suggested strategies for analysis of dissimilarities, including the Ferrier et al. method and the Arponen et al. method. The global biodiversity observation network (GEO BON) can use the ED method for inferences of biodiversity change that include loss of phylogenetic diversity.

Keywords

Environmental diversity Phylogenetic beta diversity ED complementarity Conservation planning Biodiversity monitoring