Clutter Characteristics and Effects
- N. C. Currie
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Since the earliest days of radar, detection of unwanted objects have interfered with the detection of desired targets. These unwanted returns are known as clutter, and there is a substantial amount of literature available on radar clutter dating from World War II to the present. Whether particular returns are desired or not depends on the situation. For example, while one aircraft might be using the pattern of radar returns from terrain by which to navigate, a radar in an AWACS aircraft at higher altitude might be attempting to detect the first aircraft in the presence of this same pattern of ground returns.
- H. A. Corriher et al., Chapter XVII, “Elements of Radar Clutter,” of Principals of Modern Radar, H. Allen Ecker, ed., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 1972.
- Herbert Goldstein, “A Primer of Sea Echo,” Report No. 157, U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, San Diego, 1950.
- R. N. Trebits, “Radar Cross Section,” Ch. 2, Techniques of Radar Reflectivity Measurement, Artech House, Dedham, Mass., 1984.
- R. S. Berkowitz, Modern Radar, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1965, p. 560.
- J. D. Echard et al., “Discrimination Between Targets and Clutter by Radar,” Final Technical Report on Contract DAAAG-29-780C-0044, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, December 1981.
- M. W. Long, Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea, Artech House, Dedham, Mass., 1983.
- R. D. Hayes and F. B. Dyer, “Computer Modeling for Fire Control Radar Systems,” Technical Report No. 1 on Contract DAA25-73-C-0256, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, December 1974.
- Donald E. Kerr and Herbert Goldstein, “Radar Targets and Echoes,” ch. 6, of Propagation of Short Radio Waves, vol. 13, MIT Radiation Laboratory Series, Boston Technical Publishers, Lexington, Mass., 1964, pp. 360–561.
- E. J. Barlow, “Doppler Radar,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 37, no. 4, April 1949, p. 351. CrossRef
- W. Fishbein et al., “Clutter Attenuation Analysis,” Technical Report No. ECOM-2808, U.S. Army ECOM, AD665352 March 1967.
- N. C. Currie, F. B. Dyer, and R. D. Hayes, “Analysis of Radar Rain Return at Frequencies of 9.5, 35, 70, and 95 GHz,” Technical Report No. 2 on Contract DAA25-73-0256, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, February 1975.
- N. C. Currie, F. B. Dyer, and R. D. Hayes, “Radar Land Clutter Measurements at 9.5, 16, 35, and 95 GHz,” Technical Report No. 3 on Contract DAA25-73-0256, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, March 1975.
- P. M. Austin, “Radar Measurements of the Distribution of Precipitation in New England Storms,” Proceedings of the 10th Weather Conference, Boston, 1965, pp. 247–254.
- Louis J. Battan, Radar Characteristics of the Atmosphere, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973.
- N. C. Currie, F. B. Dyer, and R. D. Hayes, “Radar Rain Return at Frequencies of 10, 35, 70, and 95 GHz,” 1975 IEEE International Radar Conference, Washington, D.C., April 1975.
- N.C. Currie, and S. P. Zehner, “MM Wave Land Clutter Model,” IEE RADAR 82 International Symposium, London, September, 1982.
- “Radar Terrain Return Study,” Goodyear Aircraft Corp., Final Report on Contract NOAS- 59-6186-C, GERA-463, Phoenix, September 1959.
- W. H. Stiles, F. T. Ulaby, and E. Wilson, “Backscatter Response of Roads and Roadside Surfaces,” Sandia Report No. SAND78-7069, University of Kansas Center for Research, Lawrence, March, 1979.
- R. D. Hayes, N. C. Currie, and J. A. Scheer, “MMW Backscatter and Emissivity of Snow,” IEEE 1980 International Radar Conference, Washington, D.C., April 1980.
- Bush et al., “Seasonal Variations of the Microwave Scattering Properties of the Deciduous Trees as Measured in the 1–18 GHz Spectral Range,” R.S.L. Report No. 177-60, University of Kansas Center for Research, Lawrence, June 1976.
- N. C. Currie et al., “Radar Millimeter Wave Measurements: Part I, Snow and Vegetation,” Report No. AFATL-TR-77-92 on Contract F08635-77-C-0221, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, July, 1977.
- N. C. Currie, F. B. Dyer, and G. W. Ewell, “Radar Millimeter Measurements from Snow,” Technical Report No. AFATL-TR-77-4 on Contract F08635-77-C-0221, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, January 1977.
- William H. Stiles and F. T. Ulaby, “Microwave Sensing of Snowpacks,” NASA Report No. 3263 on Contract NAS-5-73777, University of Kansas Center for Research, Lawrence, June 1980.
- S. P. Zehner and M. T. Tuley, “Development and Validation of Multipath and Clutter Models for TAC Zinger in Low Altitude Scenarios,” Final Technical Report on Contract No. F49620- 78-C-0121, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, March 1979.
- R. R. Boothe, “The Weibull Distribution Applied to Ground Clutter Backscatter Coefficient,” Report No. RE-TR-69-15, U.S. Army Missile Command, Huntsville, Ala., June 1969.
- Joseph E. Knox, “High Angle Backscatter from Snow on the Ground,” Snow 1-A Symposium, Hanover N.H., October 1982.
- N. W. Guinard and J. C. Daley, “An Experimental Study of a Sea Clutter Model,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 58, April 1970, pp. 534–550. CrossRef
- M. W. Long et al., “Wavelength Dependence of Sea Echo,” Final Report on Contract N62269- 3019, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 1965.
- W. K. Rivers, “Low Angle Sea Return at 3 mm Wavelength,” Final Technical Report on Contract N62269-70-C-0489, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, November 1970.
- F. B. Dyer and N. C. Currie, “Some Comments on the Characterization of Radar Sea Echo,” 1974 IEEE AP-S International Symposium, Atlanta, June 1974, pp. 323–326.
- R. N. Trebits et al., “Millimeter Radar Sea Return Study,” Interim Technical Report on Contract No. N60921-77-C-A168, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, July 1978.
- D. K. Plummer et al., “Some Measured Statistics of Coherent Radar Sea Echo and Doppler,” Final Technical Report on Contract NADC 78154-30, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, December 1979.
- J. C. Wiltre, et al., “Backscattering characteristics of the Sea in the Region 10 to 50 KMC,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 45, pp. 220–228, February, 1957. CrossRef
- R. N. Trebits and B. Perry, “Multifrequency Radar Sea Backscatter Data Reduction,” Final Technical Report on Contract N60921-80-C-0176, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, September 1982.
- L. O. Ericson, “Terrain Return Measurements with an Airborne X-band Radar Station,” Sixth Conference of the Swedish National Committee on Scientific Radio, Stockholm, Sweden March 1963 (translated October 1966).
- A. Maffet et al., Radar Analysis Services, vol. 2C: Synthetic Aperture Radar Change Detection Model-Technical Reference Material, Radar and Optics Division, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM), Ann Arbor, June 1977.
- F. C. McDonald, W. S. Ament, and D. L. Ringwalt, “Terrain Clutter Measurements,” NRL Report 5057, Propagation Branch, Washington, DC, January 1958.
- D. T. Hayes, “Radar Backscatter From Snow,” 1978 IEEE AP/S International Symposium, Seattle, June 1978.
- Fred E. Nathanson, Radar Design Principles, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1969, p. 229.
- Clutter Characteristics and Effects
- Book Title
- Principles of Modern Radar
- Book Part
- Part 3
- pp 281-342
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- Springer US
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