Residue Reviews

Volume 69 of the series Residues of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in the Total Environment pp 87-140


  • Gerald A. PollockAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Medicine/Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of Idaho
  • , Wendell W. KilgoreAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Toxicology, University of California

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“Hercules 3956,” or toxaphene, was introduced in the mid 1940s as a new insecticide and by 1948 it was being used commercially for the control of a variety of insect pests (West and Campbell 1952). Chemically, toxaphene is a complex mixture of chlorinated camphene derivatives containing 67 to 69% chlorine. Recent research had disclosed that this complex substance contains at least 177 separate components (Casida et al. 1974, Holmstead et al. 1974).