Chapter

Biofuels, Solar and Wind as Renewable Energy Systems

pp 357-371

Ethanol Production: Energy and Economic Issues Related to U.S. and Brazilian Sugarcane

  • David PimentelAffiliated withCollege of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University
  • , Tad W. PatzekAffiliated withDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

This analysis employs the most recent scientific data for the U.S. and for Brazil sugarcane production and the fermentation/distillation. These two countries were selected because they are the two largest countries in the world producing ethanol. All current fossil energy inputs used in the entire process of producing ethanol from sugarcane were included to determine the entire energy cost for ethanol production. Additional costs to consumers, including federal and state subsidies, plus costs of environmental pollution and/or degradation associated with the entire production system are discussed. The economic and the broad human food supply issues are evaluated. In addition, other studies are compared.

Keywords

Converting biomass energy costs environmental costs subsidization