Chapter

Probiotics and Bioactive Carbohydrates in Colon Cancer Management

pp 57-82

Bioactive Carbohydrate: Prebiotics and Colorectal Cancer

  • Maya RamanAffiliated withBioengineering and Drug Design Lab Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras
  • , Padma AmbalamAffiliated withDepartment of Biotechnology, Christ College, Saurashtra University
  • , Mukesh DobleAffiliated withBioengineering and Drug Design Lab Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras

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Abstract

Prebiotics are defined as the indigestible food components that are selectively fermented by the intestinal microbes and promote changes in the gut environment, gut microbial community structure, and their metabolism. Prebiotics have been reported to avert colorectal cancer development by altering the composition and activity of the gut microflora. Administration of prebiotics has been reported to reduce colon cancer and its biomarkers. Oligosaccharides such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, lactulose, soy-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, lactitol, resistant starch, etc., are some of the commercially available prebiotics. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides thwart colon carcinogenesis possibly by modulating the colonic ecosystem. Galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose, and fructo-oligosaccharides are observed to increase the intestinal concentration of lactate, stool frequency, and weight; and decrease fecal concentration of secondary bile acids, fecal pH, and nitroreductase and β-glucuronidase activities, thus preventing colon carcinogenesis. Lactulose is reported to reduce the proliferation and occurrence of adenoma. Resistant starch prevents cancer by modulating gene expression and DNA methylation. Prebiotics undergo fermentation by gut microbes leading to the formation of short-chain fatty acids and enhance the immunity of the host. Butyrate has been observed to have direct effects in preventing colon cancer. Prebiotics are observed to modulate the colonic gut environment and aid in the growth and development of Bifidobacteria spp.

Keywords

Prebiotics Short-chain fatty acids Oligosaccharides Inulin Fructo-oligosaccharides Galacto-oligosaccharides Lactulose Bifidogenic effects Colon Gut microbes