Chapter

Innovations in Chemical Biology

pp 83-90

Chamomile Biodiversity of the Essential Oil Qualitative-Quantitative Characteristics

  • Ivan SalamonAffiliated withAssociate Professor Dr . Presov University, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Department of Ecology Email author 

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Biosynthesis of the special metabolite in ecological system is presented the unique and specific metabolite process, which is placed under general biomass production periodicity of plant. Each plant species has own specific limiting boundaries. There are presented its tolerance to influence of eco-physiological conditions. Extend of this tolerance is called the species ecological amplitude. Chamomile plants, Matricaria recutita L., have very wide ecological amplitude and this species geographical occurrence in practical all over the world. Plant habitat and the creation of secondary metabolites in plants are depended on the endogenous and exogenous factors, which can be divided in two groups: (a) morpho-ontogenetic variability, (b) genetic variability respectively genetic determination [1]. In chamomile plant habitat (diploid) is not possible to determinate any principal differences among plants. Impulse for the totally new valuation of the research and development has become if the identification of four chief chemical types of chamomile different by the qualitative — quantitative composition of chemical compounds (sesquiterpenes) in the essential oil was carried out [2]. This very important fact was referred to chamomile biodiversity. This biodiversity was created during long time process (evolution) in regard to influence of eco-physiological conditions (biotic- and abiotic- factors) on the concrete place of chamomile population growth. Contribution presents the results of the chamomile essential oil qualitative-quantitative characteristics of chemo types which are originated from various geographical parts of the world (Slovakia, Ukraine, Poland, Egypt, Malta and Crimea). Nowadays the centre of attention is being devoted to cultivation, breeding (tetraploid plants) and seed production of this special crop [3].

Keywords

Biodiversity /-/- α -bisabolol /-/- α -bisabololoxide A and B chamazulene chamomile chemo types essential oil sesquiterpenes