Theory and Decision

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 207–229

Multiple Prisoner's Dilemma Games with(out) an Outside Option: an Experimental Study

  • Esther Hauk

DOI: 10.1023/A:1027385819400

Cite this article as:
Hauk, E. Theory and Decision (2003) 54: 207. doi:10.1023/A:1027385819400


Experiments in which subjects play simultaneously several finite two-person prisoner's dilemma supergames with and without an outside option reveal that: (i) an attractive outside option enhances cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, (ii) if the payoff for mutual defection is negative, subjects' tendency to avoid losses leads them to cooperate; while this tendency makes them stick to mutual defection if its payoff is positive, (iii) subjects use probabilistic start and endeffect behavior.

Prisoner's dilemmaCooperationExitExperimentsLoss aversion

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esther Hauk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economics and BusinessUniversitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain