, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 389-405

C-rater: Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Questions

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C-rater is an automated scoringengine that has been developed to scoreresponses to content-based short answerquestions. It is not simply a stringmatching program – instead it uses predicateargument structure, pronominal reference,morphological analysis and synonyms to assignfull or partial credit to a short answerquestion. C-rater has been used in two studies:National Assessment for Educational Progress(NAEP) and a statewide assessment in Indiana.In both studies, c-rater agreed with humangraders about 84% of the time.