Brodifacoum Poisoning of Avian Scavengers During Rat Control on a Seabird Colony
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Adorjan, A.S. and Kolenosky, G.B. (1969). A manual for the identification of hairs of selected Ontario mammals. Research Branch. Department of Lands and Forests, Ontario. Research Report (wildlife) No. 90. 64 pp.
Aldenberg, T. and Slob, W. (1993). Confidence limits for hazardous concentrations based logistically distributed NOEC toxicity data. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 25, 48–63.
Balcomb, R. (1986). Songbird carcasses disappear rapidly from agricultural fields. The Auk 103, 817–20.
Baril, A., Jobin, B., Mineau, P. and Collins, B. T. (1994). A consideration of inter-species variability in the use of the median lethal dose (LD50) in avian risk assessment. Canadian Wildlife Service. Technical Report Series No. 216 Headquarters 12 pp.
Bertram, D.F. (1989). The status of Ancient Murrelets breeding on Langara Island, British Columbia, in 1988. Canadian Wildlife Service, Technical Report Series No. 59. Pacific and Yukon Region. 67 pp.
Bortolotti, G.R. (1984). Sexual size dimorphism and age-related size variation in bald eagles. Journal of Wildlife Management 48, 72–81.
Brenchley, A. (1985). Ravens and their effect on sheep production on Saltspring Island, British Columbia: A preliminary study. Crop Protection Branch, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Victoria, B.C. Canada. 27 pp.
Brown, B.A. (1988). Hematology: Principles and Procedures, 5th edition. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Brown, R.A., Hardy, A.R., Greig-Smith, P.W. and Edwards, P.J. (1988). Assessing the impact of rodenticides on the environment. EPPO Bulletin 18, 283–92.
Cain, S.L. and Hodges, J.I. (1989). A floating-fish snare for capturing bald eagles. Journal of Raptor Research 23, 10–3.
Colvin, B.A. and Hegdal, P.L. (1987). Procedures for assessing secondary poisoning hazards of rodenticides to owls. In S.A. Shumake and R.W. Bullard (eds) Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials: 5th Volume. ASTM STP974, pp. 64–71. Philadelphia: American Society for testing and Materials.
Cox, P. and Smith, R.H. (1990). Rodenticide ecotoxicology: assessing non-target population effects. Functional Ecology 4, 315–20.
Cox, P. and Smith, R.H. (1992). Rodenticide ecotoxicology: Pre-lethal effects of anticoagulants on rat behaviour. In J.E. Borrecco and R.E. Marsh (eds) Proceedings of the 15th Vertebrate Pest Conference, pp. 165–170. Davis: University of California.
Drent, R.H. and Guiget, C.J. (1961). A catalog of British Columbia Seabird Colonies. Occasional Paper No. 12. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria.
Dubock, A.C. (1984). Pulsed Baiting—A new technique for high potency, slow acting rodenticides. In A.C. Dubock (ed) Proceedings of Vertebrate Pest Control, pp. 105–42. Fernhurst, U.K.: ICI.
Eason, C.T. and Spurr, E.B. (1995). Review of the toxicity and impacts of brodifacoum on non-target wildlife in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 22, 371–9.
Ehrlich, P.R., Dobkin, D.S. and Wheye, D. (1988). The birder's handbook. A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Elliott, J.E., Moul, I.E. and Cheng, K.M. (1998). Variable reproductive success of bald eagles on the British Columbia coast. Journal of Wildlife Management 62, 518–29.
Falla, R.A., Sibson, R.B. and Turbott, E.G. (1983). The new guide to the birds of New Zealand. Auckland: Collins.
Fenn, M.G.P., Tew, T.E. and Macdonald, D.W. (1987). Rat movements and control on an Oxfordshire farm. Journal of Zoology London 213, 745–9.
Gemmeke, von H. (1990). Untersuchungen zur Absch tzung des sekundarvergiftungsriskos bei Beuregreifen durch Rodentizicide. Nachtrichtenb. Deutchland Pflanzenschutzd 42, 22–5.
Gerrard, J.M. and Bortolotti, G.R. (1988). The Bald Eagle. Haunts and Habits of a Wilderness Monarch, 177 pp. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Gill, C.E. (1998). Environmental contaminants, food availability, and reproduction of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. M.Sc. Thesis, 149 pp. Burnaby, British Columbia: Simon Fraser University.
Godfrey, M.E.R. (1985). Non-target and secondary poisoning hazards of “second-generation” anticoagulants. Acta Zoologica Fennica 173, 209–12.
Gray, A., Eadsforth, C.V. and Dutton, A.J. (1994). Non-invasive method for monitoring the exposure of barn owls to second-generation rodenticides. Pesticide Science 41, 339–43.
Griminger, P. (1986). Hemostasis. In P.D. Sturkie (ed) Avian Physiology, pp. 121–9. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Harfenist, A. (1993). The Status of Ancient Murrelets and other Fauna in Relation to Introduced Rats on Langara Island, 1993. Canadian Wildlife Service, Technical Report Series No. 218. Pacific and Yukon Region. 52 pp.
Harrison, E.G., Porter, A.J. and Forbes, S. (1988). Development of methods to assess the hazards of a rodenticide to non-target vertebrates. In M.P Greaves, B.D. Smith and P.W. Greig-Smith (eds) Environmental effects of Pesticides, pp. 89–96. British Crop Protection Council Monograph No. 40. Thornton Heath, UK.
Hill, E.F. (1994). Acute and subacute toxicology in evaluation of pesticide hazard to avian wildlife. In R.J. Kendall and J. Lacher (eds) Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling, pp. 207–26. SETAC Publication, Lewis Publishers.
Hoffman, R.S., Smilkstein, M.J. and Goldfrank, L.R. (1988). Evaluation of coagulation factor abnormalities in long-acting anticoagulant overdose. Clinical Toxicology 26, 233–48.
Howald, G.R. (1997). The risk of non-target species poisoning from brodifacoum used to eradicate rats from Langara Island, British Columbia, Canada. M.Sc. Thesis, 159 pp. Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia.
Huckle, K.R., Morrison, B.J. and Warburton, P.A. (1989a). The percutaneous fate of the rodenticide flocoumafen in the rat: role of non-biliary intestinal excretion. Xenobiotica 19, 63–74.
Huckle, K.R., Warburton, P.A., Forbes, S. and Logan, C.J. (1989b). Studies on the fate of flocoumafen in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Xenobiotica 19, 51–62.
Hunter, K. (1983). Determination of coumarin anticoagulant rodenticide residues in animal tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography. I. Fluorescence detection using post-column techniques. Journal of Chromatography 270, 267–76.
Kaiser, G.W., R.H. Taylor, P.D. Buck, J.E. Elliott, G.R. Howald and M.C. Drever. (1997). The Langara Island Seabird Habitat Recovery Project: Eradication of Norway Rats—1993–1997. Technical Report Series No. 304. Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, British Columbia. 90 pp.
Kaukeinen, D.E. (1982). A review of the secondary poisoning hazard potential to wildlife from the use of anticoagulant rodenticides. In R.E. Marsh (ed) Proceedings of the 10th Vertebrate Pest Conference, pp. 151–8. California: University of Davis.
Keister, G.P. (1981). Characteristics of winter roosts and populations of bald eagles in the Klamath Basin. M.Sc. Thesis. Corvallis: Oregon State University.
Knight, R.L., Randolph, P.J., Allen, G.T., Young, L.S. and Wigen, R.J. (1990). Diets of nesting bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, in Western Washington. Canadian Field Naturalist 104, 545–51.
Lechevin, J.C. and Vigie, A. (1992). Which useful toxicological information can be drawn from studies on the hepatic fixation of anticoagulant rodenticides. In J.E. Borrecco and R.E. Marsh (eds) Proceedings of the 15th Vertebrate Pest Conference, pp. 204–7. California: University of Davis.
Linz, G.M., Davis, J.E., Engeman, R.M., Otis, D.L. and Avery, M.L. (1991). Estimating survival of bird carcasses in cattail marshes. Wildlife Society Bulletin 19, 195–9.
Luttik, R., Clook, M.A., Taylor, M.R. and Hart, A.D.M. (in press). The regulatory aspects of the ecotoxicological risk assessment of rodenticides. In D.P. Cowan and C.J. Feare (eds) Advances in Vertebrate Pest Management, Filander Verlag GmbH.
McClymont, R.A. (1982). Identification of cervid tissues and hybridization by serum albumin. Journal of Wildlife Management 46, 540–4.
Mendenhall V.M. and Pank, L.F. (1980). Secondary poisoning of owls by anticoagulant rodenticides. Wildlife Society Bulletin 8, 311–5.
Merson, M.H., Byers, R.E. and Kaukeinen, D.E. (1984). Residues of the Rodenticide Brodifacoum in Voles and raptors after Orchard Treatment. Journal of Wildlife Management 48, 212–6.
Mineau, P. (1991). Difficulties in the regulatory assessment of cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides. In P. Mineau (ed) Cholinesterase Inhibiting Insecticides, pp. 277–99. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
Mineau, P. and Collins, B.T. (1988). Avian mortality in agroecosystems 2. Methods of detection. In M.P. Greaves, B.D. Smith and P.W. Greig-Smith (eds) Environmental effects of Pesticides. British Crop Protection Council Monograph No. 40, pp. 13–27. UK: Thornton Heath.
Moore, N.W. (ed) (1966). Pesticides in the environment and their effect on wildlife. Journal of Applied Ecology (supplement), 34 pp.
Moore, T.D., Spence, L.E. and Dugnolle, C.E. (1974). Identification of the dorsal guard hairs of some mammals of Wyoming. In W.G. Hepworth (ed). Wyoming Game and Fish Department.
Moors, P.J. and Atkinson, I.A.E. (1984). Predation on seabirds by introduced animals, and factors affecting its severity. In J.P. Croxall, P.G.H. Evans and R.W. Schreiber (eds) Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. ICBP Technical Publication No. 2, pp. 667–90. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Preservation.
Mount, M.E. (1988). Diagnosis and therapy of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxications. Veterinary clinics of North America. Small Mammal Practice 18, 115–31.
Murphy, M.J., Ray, A.C. and Bailey, E.M. (1989). A high performance liquid chromatography method for the detection of brodifacoum in serum. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 31, 228–30.
Newton, I., Davis, P.E. and Davis, J.E. (1982). Ravens and buzzards in relation to sheep farming and forestry in Wales. Journal of Applied Ecology 19, 681–706.
Newton, I., Wyllie, I. and Freestone, P. (1990). Rodenticides in British barn owls. Environmental Pollution 68, 101–17.
Parmar, G., Bratt, H., Moore, R. and Batten, P.L. (1987). Evidence for a common binding site in-vivo for the retention of anticoagulants in rat liver. Human Toxicology 6, 431–2.
Radvanyi A., Weaver, P., Massari, C, Bird, D. and Broughton, E. (1988). Effects of chlorophacinone on Captive Kestrels. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41, 441–8.
Record, C.R. and Marsh, R.E. (1988). Rodenticide residues in animal carcasses and their relevance to secondary hazards. In A.C. Crabb and R.E. Marsh (eds) Proceedings of the 13th Vertebrate Pest Conference, pp. 163–8.
Retfalvi (1970). Food of nesting bald eagles on San Juan Island, Washington. Condor 72, 358–61.
Ross, D.B., Roberts, N.L. and Cameron, D. (1976). The acute oral toxicity (LD50) of PP 581 to the Japanese quail. Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. Cheshire, UK. Unpublished report No. ICI 122 WL/77599. 9 pp.
Ross, D.B., Roberts, N.L. and Cameron, D. (1977). The acute oral toxicity (LD50) of PP 581 to the chicken. Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. Cheshire, UK. Unpublished report No. ICI 122 WL/77600. 9 pp.
Ross, D.B., Roberts, N.L. and Cameron, D. (1978). The acute oral toxicity (LD50) of PP 581 to the mallard duck. Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. Cheshire, UK. Unpublished report No. ICI 122 WL/78507. 10 pp.
Savarie, P.J., Hayes, D.J., Mcbride, R.T. and Roberts, J.D. (1979). Efficacy and safety of diphacinone as a predacide. In E.E. Kenaga (ed) Avian and Mammalian Wildlife Toxicology, pp. 69–79. American Society for Testing and Materials Special Technical Publication No. 693.
Sherrod, S.K., White, C.M. and Williamson, F.S.L. (1976). Biology of the bald eagle on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Living Bird 15, 143–82.
Stalmaster, M.V. (1987). The Bald Eagle, 227 pp. New York: Universe Books.
Taylor, R.H. (1993). The Feasability of Rat Eradication on Langara Island, British Columbia, Canada. Unpublished Report. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Delta, British Columbia.
Taylor, D.P. (1984). The identification and detection of the rats in New Zealand and the eradication of ship rats on Tawhitinui Island. Unpublished dissertation for Diploma in Parks and Recreation, Lincoln College, Canterbury, New Zealand. 73 pp. (Cited in Eason and Spurr 1995.)
Taylor, R.H. and Kaiser, G.W. (1993). Trip Report: Lucy and Cox Island at the North End of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands)—31 May to 6 June 1993. Unpublished Report, Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, B.C.
Taylor, R.H. and Thomas, B.W. (1993). Rats eradicated from rugged breaksea island (170 ha), Fiordland, New Zealand. Biological Conservation 65, 191–8.
Taylor, R.H. and Thomas, B.W. (1989). Eradication of Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) from Hawea Island, Fiordland, using Brodifacoum. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 12, 23–32.
Townsend, M.G., Bunyan, P.J., Odam, E.M., Stanley, P.I. and Wardall, H.P. (1984). Assessment of secondary poisoning hazard of warfarin to least weasels. Journal of Wildlife Management 48, 628–32.
Townsend, M.G., Fletcher, M.R., Odam E.M. and Stanley, P.I. (1981). An assessment of the secondary poisoning hazard of warfarin to tawny owls. Journal of Wildlife Management 45, 242–7.
Vermeer, K., Morgan, K.H., Butler, R.W. and Smith, G.E.K. (1989). Population, nesting habitat, and food of bald eagles in the Gulf Islands. In K. Vermeer and R.W. Butler (eds) The Ecology and Status of Marine and Shoreline Birds in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, pp. 123–30. Canadian Wildlife Service, Special Publication, Ottawa, ON.
Watson, J.W., Garrett, M.G. and Anthony, R.G. Foraging ecology of bald eagles in the Columbia River Estuary. Journal of Wildlife Management 55, 492–9.
- Brodifacoum Poisoning of Avian Scavengers During Rat Control on a Seabird Colony
Volume 8, Issue 6 , pp 431-447
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- secondary poisoning
- bald eagle
- Industry Sectors