Assessment of Enteric Pathogen Shedding by Bathers during Recreational Activity and its Impact on Water Quality
- Charles P. Gerba
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
An assessment was made to determine the potential loading of enteric pathogenic protozoa and viruses into drinking water supply reservoirs by body contact recreation. These and other organisms of fecal origin are shed from the body during bathing. A literature review was conducted on the concentration of selected enteric viruses and protozoa during infection, the incidence of these infections, and duration of excretion. In addition, from existing literature, the amount of fecal material released during bathing was estimated from the shedding of fecal coliforms by bathers. The mean amount of fecal material shed per bather was estimated at 0.14[emsp4 ]gram. The concentration of protozoan parasites (Giardia or Cryptosporidium) in feces of infected persons can range from 105 to 107 per gram and enteric viruses (enteroviruses, adenoviruses, rotavirus) from 105 to 1012 per gram. From this information, the concentration of enteric pathogens, shed into the water, could be calculated for a group of bathers. This information can be used to model the impact of body contact recreation on water quality in reservoirs used for drinking water supplies. Such information is useful in assessing the required treatment of the water to meet water quality regulations.
- M.A. Anderson, M. Stewart, M.V. Yates, C.P. Gerba, Modeling the impact of body-contact recreation on pathogen concentrations in a source drinking water reservoir. Water Res 32, 3293–3306 (1998).
- APHA. American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater Analysis (Washington, DC, 1998).
- Baron, R.C.F.D. Murphy, H.B. Greenberg et al., Norwalk gastrointestinal illness associated with swimming in a recreational lake and secondary person-to-person transmission. Amer J Epid 115, 163–172 (1982).
- A. Bell, R. Guasparini, D. Meeds, R.G. Mathias, J.D. Farley, A swimming pool-associated outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in British Columbia. Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique 84, 334–337 (1993).
- A.S. Benenson, Control of Communicable Diseases in Man, 14th ed. (American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1985).
- R.E. Black, A.C. Dykes, S.A. Sinclair, J.G. Wells, Giardiasis in day-care centers: evidence of person to person transmission. Pediatrics 60, 193–197 (1977).
- J.P. Breittmayer, M.J. Gauthier, Contamination bacterienne D'Uno zone balneaire liee a sa frequentation. Water Res 12, 193–197 (1978).
- K.J. Carswell, J.M. Symons, G.G. Robeck, Research on recreational use of watersheds and reservoirs. J Amer Water Works Assoc 61, 297–304 (1969).
- H. Champsaur, E. Questiaux, J. Prevot et al., Rotavirus carriage, asymptomatic infection, and disease in the first years of life. I. Virus shedding. J Infect Dis 149, 667–674 (1984).
- A.G. Coulepis, S.A. Locarnini, E.G. Westway, G.A. Tannock, I.D. Gust. Biophysical and biochemical characterization of hepatitis Avirus. J Infect Dis 141, 151- 156.
- P. De Filippis, M. Divizia, A. Mele, B. Adamo, A. Pana, Detection of hepatitis Avirus in stools of healthy people from endemic areas. Eur J Epidemiol 3, 172–175 (1987).
- R.G. Feachem, D.J. Bradley, H. Garelick, D.D. Mara, Sanitation and Disease (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1983).
- T.H. Flewett, Clinical features of rotavirus infections, in Virus Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, edited by D.A.J. Tyrell, A.Z. Kapikian (Marcel Dekker Inc., NY, 1982), pp. 125–146.
- J.P. Fox, C.E. Hall, Viruses In Families (PSG Publishing Company, Inc., Littleton, MA, 1980).
- C.P. Gerba, P. Gerba, Outbreaks caused by Giarda and Cryptosporidium associated with swimming pools. J Swimming Pool and Spa Industry 1, 9–18 (1995).
- S.M. Goyal, C.P. Gerba, Concentration of viruses from water by membrane filters, in Methods in Environmental Virology, edited by C.P. Gerba, S.M. Goyal (Marcel-Dekker, Inc., NY, 1982), pp. 59–116.
- N.B. Hanes, A.J. Fossa, A quantitative analysis of the effects of bathers on recreational water quality, 5th International Water Pollution Research Conference 1970 preprint. 1-1A-9/1 through HA 9/8 (Pergamon Press, London, Great Britain, 1970).
- Harter, L.F. Frost, G. Gurnenfelder, K. Perkins-Jones, J. Liby, Giardiasis in an infant and toddler swim class. Amer J Public Hlth 74, 155–156 (1984).
- H.B. Hawley, D.P. Morin, M.E. Geraghty, J. Tomkow, A. Phillips, Coxsackievirus B epidemic at a boy's summer camp. J Amer Med Assoc 226, 33–36 (1973).
- F.B. Hollinger, J. Ticehurst, Hepatitis A virus, in Virology, edited by B.N. Fields, D.M. Knipe (Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, 1990), pp. 631–637.
- R.T. Howell, B.S. Waldron, Intestinal parasites in Arkansas. J Arkansas Med Soc 75, 212–214 (1978).
- W. Jakubowski, Detection of Giardia cysts in drinking water: State-of-the-art, in Giardia and Giardiasis, Biology, Pathogenesis and Epidemiology, (Plenum Press, NY, 1984), pp. 263–285.
- A. Jokipii, M.M. Jokipii, Timing of symptoms and oocyst excretion in human cryptosporidiosis. N Engl J Med 315, 1643–1647 (1986).
- K.D. Kappus, J.S. Marks, R.C. Holman, J.K. Bryant, C. Baker, G.W. Gary, H.B. Greenberg, An outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis associated with swimming in a pool and secondary person-to-person transmission. Amer J Epidem 116, 834–839 (1982).
- J.L. Melnick, Special Publication of the New York Acad of Science 5, 365–381 (1957).
- J.L. Melnick, V. Rennick, Infectivity of enterovirus as found in human stools. J Med Virology 5, 205–220 (1980).
- A.S. Monto, J.S. Koopman, I.M. Longini, R.E. Isaacson, The Tecumseh study XII. Enteric agents in the community, 1976- 1981. J Infect Dis 148, 284–291 (1983).
- A.C. Moore, B.L. Hewaldt, G.F. Craun, R.L. Calderon, A.K. Calderon, A.K. Highsmith, D.D. Jurank, Waterborne disease in the United States, 1991 and 1992. J Amer Water Works Assoc 86, 87–99 (1994).
- MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, Summary-cases of specific notifiable diseases, United States. MMWR 36, 840 (1988).
- M.L. Peterson (1972). The occurrence and survival of viruses in municipal solid waste. Dissertation Abstracts. 33/3, 2232-B–2233-B. Ann Arbor, MI.
- M.L. Peterson, Soiled disposable diapers: A potential source of viruses. Amer J Public Hlth 64, 912–914 (1974).
- J.D. Poter, H.P. Ragazzoni, J.D. Buchanon, H.A. Waslin, D.D. Jurnak, W.E. Parkin, Giardia transmission in a swimming pool. Amer J Public Hlth 78, 659–662 (1988).
- L.J. Robertson, H.V. Smith, C.A. Paton, Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage effluent in six sewage plants in Scotland and the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis diagnosed in the communities served by those plants, in Protozoan Parasites in Water, edited by W.B. Betts, D. Casemore, C. Fricker, H. Smith, J. Watkins (The Royal Soc. Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1994), pp. 45–49.
- E.D. Robinton, E.W. Mood, A quantitative and qualitative appraisal of microbial pollution of water by swimmers: A preliminary report. J Hyg Camb 64, 489 (1966).
- J.B. Rose, R.L. Mullinax, S.N. Singh, M.V. Yates, C.P. Gerba, Occurrence of rotaviruses and enteroviruses in recreational waters of Oak Creek, Arizona. Water Res 21, 1375–1381 (1987).
- J.B. Rose, G.-S. Sun, C.P. Gerba, N.A. Sinclair, Microbial quality and persistence of enteric pathogens in graywater from various household sources. Water Res 25, 37–42 (1991).
- Pickering, L.K.W.E. Woodward, H.L. DuPont et al., Occurrence of Giardia lamblia in children in day care centers. J Pediatr 104, 522–526(1984).
- W.J. Rodriguez, H.W. Kim, C.D. Brandt, Longitudinal study of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in families served by a pediatric medical practice: clinical and epidemiological observations. Pediatr Infect Dis 6, 170–176 (1987).
- D.P. Sealy, S.H. Shuman, Endemic giardiasis and day care. Pediatrics 72, 154–158 (1983).
- J.P. Sherry, Temporal distribution of faecal pollution indicators and opportunistic pathogens at a Lake Ontario bathing beach. J Great Lakes Research 12, 154–160 (1986).
- B.G. Smith, A.P. Dufour, Effects of swimmers on the microbiological quality of recreational waters: A simulation study, Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (American Society for Microbiology. Washington, DC, 1994), pp. 406.
- R. Soave, C.S. Weikel, Cryptosporidum and other protozoa including Isospora, Sacrocysts, Blantidium coli and Blastocysts, in Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, (Churchill Livingstone Inc., NY, 1990), pp. 2122–2130.
- F.J. Sorvillo, K. Fujioka, B. Nahlen, M.P. Tonney, R. Kebabjian, L. Mascola, Swimming associated cryptosporidsis. Amer J Public Hlth 82, 742–744 (1992).
- D.G. Stuart, G.K. Bissonnette, T.D. Goodrich, W.G. Walter, Effect of multiple use on water quality of highmountain watersheds: bacteriological investigations of mountain streams. Appl Environ Microbiol 22, 1048–1054 (1971).
- B.L. Ungar, Cryptosporidiosis in humans (Homo sapiens), in Cryptosporidiosis in Man and Animals, edited by J.P. Dubey, C.A. Speer, R. Fayer (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1990), pp. 59–82.
- USEPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency. National primary drinking water regulations; infiltration and disinfection; turbidity; Giardia lamblia; viruses, Legionella, and hetrotrophic bacteria. Fed Reg 54, 27486–27541 (1989).
- K.J. Varness, R.E. Pacha, R.F. Lapen. Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. Appl Environ Microbiol 36, 95–104 (1978).
- Assessment of Enteric Pathogen Shedding by Bathers during Recreational Activity and its Impact on Water Quality
Volume 2, Issue 1 , pp 55-68
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- recreational water
- enteric viruses
- pathogen shedding
- fecal coliforms
- Charles P. Gerba (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona