Environmental quality evaluation of the Vacacaí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
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- Kochhann, D., Behr, E.R., de Chaves, A. et al. Environ Earth Sci (2013) 70: 1727. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2260-z
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The water quality of the Vacacaí River was assessed at different sites in the period between winter 2005 and autumn 2006. All samples were analyzed for 52 elements (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, Li, Be, Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, In, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U, Na, K, Hg, B, Mo, Sn, Te, Ti), temperature, pH, ammonia, and alkalinity levels. Water from the Vacacaí River ranged from slightly acidic to alkaline. No difference was observed in the chemical composition at different sites of the Vacacaí River. Levels of Ba, Ca, Sr and Mg increase in the dry seasons and reach their highest concentrations in autumn; Be and U decrease in the dry season and reach their highest concentration in spring. Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Th, U Mn, Ca and Mg are highly positively related, indicating a common origin. Se and Cu are probably from anthropogenic source, from the rice crops of the margins of the river. Waterborne Al and Fe levels were above the desirable level for drinking water at all sites during all seasons. These results demonstrate the need for constant monitoring of water parameters, which is crucial to ensure water quality for the population of this region.