Uniform colloidal Bi2S3 nanodots and nanorods with different sizes have been prepared in a controllable manner via a hot injection method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the resulting nanocrystals have an orthorhombic structure. Both the diameter and length of the nanorods increase with increasing concentration of the precursors. All of the prepared Bi2S3 nanostructures show high efficiency in the photodegradation of rhodamine B, especially in the case of small sized nanodots—which is possibly due to their high surface area. The dynamics of the photocatalysis is also discussed.