Article

Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 60-69

First online:

Levels of fatigue and distress in senior prostate cancer survivors enrolled in a 12-week randomized controlled trial of Qigong

  • Rebecca A. CampoAffiliated withHuntsman Cancer Institute, University of UtahProgram on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Email author 
  • , Neeraj AgarwalAffiliated withHuntsman Cancer Institute, University of UtahDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Utah
  • , Paul C. LaStayoAffiliated withDepartment of Physical Therapy, University of Utah
  • , Kathleen O’ConnorAffiliated withHuntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah
  • , Lisa PappasAffiliated withStudy Design and Biostatistics Center, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah
  • , Kenneth M. BoucherAffiliated withStudy Design and Biostatistics Center, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of UtahDepartment of Oncological Science, University of Utah
  • , Jerry GardnerAffiliated withDepartment of Theatre, University of Utah
  • , Sierra SmithAffiliated withDepartment of Physical Therapy, University of Utah
  • , Kathleen C. LightAffiliated withDepartment of Anesthesiology, University of Utah
    • , Anita Y. KinneyAffiliated withHuntsman Cancer Institute, University of UtahDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Utah

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Abstract

Purpose

Fatigue is a commonly reported symptom by prostate cancer survivors and is associated with significant distress and declines in quality of life. Qigong is a mind–body activity that consists of both physical activity and meditative aspects. This 12-week randomized controlled trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of a Qigong intervention for improving older prostate cancer survivors' levels of fatigue and distress.

Methods

Forty older (median age = 72, range = 58–93), fatigued (cut-off value of ≥1 on the CTCAEv4.0, >20 on a fatigue grading scale), and sedentary (<150 min of moderate exercise/week) prostate cancer survivors were randomized to 12 weeks of Qigong or stretching classes. Primary outcomes were feasibility (i.e., retention and class attendance rates) and fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue)], and secondary outcome was distress [Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18)].

Results

Study retention rates did not significantly differ between study groups (Qigong = 80 %, stretching = 65 %, p = 0.48). The Qigong group had significantly higher class attendance than the stretching group (p = 0.04). The Qigong group had significantly greater improvements in the FACIT-Fatigue (p = 0.02) and distress (i.e., BSI-18 Somatization, Anxiety, & Global Severity Index, p's < 0.05), than the Stretching group.

Conclusions

This 12-week Qigong intervention was feasible and potentially efficacious in improving senior prostate cancer survivors' levels of fatigue and distress levels. Future, larger definitive randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these benefits in older prostate cancer survivors and in racially and ethnically diverse populations.

Implications for cancer survivors

Qigong may be an effective nonpharmacological intervention for the management of senior prostate cancer survivors' fatigue and distress.

Keywords

Senior prostate cancer survivors Qigong Randomized controlled trial Fatigue Distress