Five-Year Outcomes After Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy for Severe Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study
We present 5-year outcomes after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), including complications and revisions, weight change, obesity-related diseases and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
Patients operated from December 2005 to November 2010 were included. All variables except HRQOL (obtained using Short Form-36) were assessed prospectively. HRQOL data was assessed cross-sectionally, comparing 5-year results to both a baseline cohort of severely obese patients prior to bariatric surgery and to Norwegian norms.
Of 168 operated patients (mean age, 40.3 ± 10.5 years; 71% females), 92% completed 2-year and 82% 5-year follow-up. Re-intervention for complications occurred in four patients, whereas revision surgery was performed in six patients for weight regain and in one patient for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Mean body mass index (BMI) decreased from 46.2 ± 6.4 kg/m2 at baseline to 30.5 ± 5.8 kg/m2 at 2 years and 32.9 ± 6.1 kg/m2 at 5 years. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension occurred in 79 and 62% at 2 years, and 63 and 60% at 5 years, respectively. The percentage of patients treated for GERD increased from 12% preoperatively to 29% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years. The physical and mental SF-36 summary scores showed significantly better HRQOL at 5 years compared with the baseline cohort, but did not reach population norms.
The majority of VSG patients maintained successful weight loss and improvement of T2DM, hypertension and HRQOL at 5 years. Preventing weight regain and GERD are important considerations with this procedure.