Article Agricultural Sciences

Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 58, Issue 16, pp 1919-1930

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

High-quality reference genes for quantifying the transcriptional responses of Oryza sativa L. (ssp. indica and japonica) to abiotic stress conditions

  • Sarunyaporn MaksupAffiliated withDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University
  • , Kanyaratt SupaibulwatanaAffiliated withDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University Email author 
  • , Gopalan SelvarajAffiliated withPlant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council of Canada Email author 


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is important to food security and is also an excellent model plant for numerous cereal crops. A functional genomics study in rice includes characterization of the expression dynamics of genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis; this is a significant key for developing rice varieties that perform well in the face of adverse climate change. The qPCR analysis requires the use of appropriate reference genes in order to make any quantitative interpretations meaningful. Here, the new potential reference genes were selected from a huge public database of rice microarray experiments. The expression stability of 14 candidates and 4 conventional reference genes was validated by geNormPLUS and NormFinder software. Seven candidates are superior to the conventionally used reference genes in qPCR and three genes can be used reliably for quantitating the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress responses. These high-quality references EP (LOC_Os05g08980), HNR (LOC_Os01g71770), and TBC (LOC_Os09g34040) worked very well in three indica genotypes and one japonica genotype. One of indica genotypes including the Jasmine rice, KDML105 developed in Thailand for which no reference genes have been reported until now.


KDML105 microarrays quantitative real-time PCR reference gene rice (Oryza sativa L.) stress responsive gene