Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Blumer, H., & Hauser, P. (1933). Movies, delinquency, and crime. New York: MacMillan.
Brown, J. (1996). Gender and the action heroine: Hardbodies and the “Point of No Return”. Cinema Journal, 35
Brown, J. (2005). Gender, sexuality, and toughness: The bad girls of action film and comic books. In S. Inness (Ed.), Action chicks (pp. 47–74). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.
Butler, J. (1999). Gender is burning. In S. Thornham (Ed.), Feminist film theory (pp. 336–349). New York: New York University Press.
Calvert, S. L., Kondla, T. A., Ertel, K. A., & Meisel, D. S. (2001). Young adults’ perception and memories of a televised woman hero. Sex Roles, 45
Children Now. (2004). Prime time diversity report
. Retrieved from http://www.childrennow.com
Clover, C. J. (1992). Men, women, and chain saws: Gender in the modern horror film. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Crosby, S. (2005). Female heroes snapped into sacrificial heroines. In S. Inness (Ed.), Action chicks (pp. 153–178). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Dietz, T. L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior. Sex Roles, 38
Dill, K. E., & Thill, K. P. (2007). Video game characters and the socialization of gender roles: Young people’s perceptions mirror sexist media depictions. Sex Roles, 57
Dyer, R. (2002). The matter of images: Essays on representation. New York: Routledge.
Elasmer, M., Hasegawa, K., & Brain, M. (1999). The portrayal of women in U.S. prime time television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, 20–34.
Eschholz, S., & Bufkin, J. (2001). Crime in the movies: Investigating the efficacy of measures of both sex and gender for predicting victimization and offending in film. Sociological Forum, 16
Eschholz, S., Bufkin, J., & Long, J. (2002). Symbolic reality bites: Women and racial/ethnic minorities in modern film. Sociological Spectrum, 22
Gerbner, G. (1970). Cultural indicators: The case of violence in television drama. The Annuls of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 388
Gerbner, G. (1994). Making a killing. Psychology Today, 27(4), 18.
Gerbner, G. (1998). Cultivation analysis: An overview. Mass Communication & Society, 1
Glascock, J. (2001). Gender, roles on prime-time network television: Demographics and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45
Glascock, J. (2003). Gender, race, and aggression in newer TV networks’ primetime programming. Communication Quarterly, 51, 90–100.
Greenberg, H. R., Clover, C. J., Johnson, A., Chumo, P. N., Henderson, B., Williams, L., et al. (1991). The many faces of “Thelma & Louise”. Film Quarterly, 4
Hall, S. (Ed.). (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Haskell, M. (1974). From reverence to rape: The treatment of women in the movies. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Hills, E. (1999). From figurative males to action heroines: Further thoughts on active women in cinema. Screen, 40
Hooks, B. (1996). Reel to real: Race, sex, and class at the movies. New York: Routledge.
Huesmann, L. R. (1999). The effects of childhood aggression and exposure to media violence on adult behaviors, attitudes and mood: Evidence from a 15-year cross-national longitudinal study. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 18–29.
Inness, S. (Ed.). (2004). Action chicks: New images of tough women in popular culture. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Internet Movie Data Base (“IMDB”). (2008). Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/
Jansz, J., & Martis, R. G. (2007). The Lara phenomenon: Powerful female characters in video games. Sex Roles, 56
King, G. (2002). New Hollywood cinema, an introduction. New York: Columbia University Press.
King, N. (2008). Generic womanhood: Gendered depictions in cop action cinema. Gender & Society, 22
Krippendorff, K. (2004a). Reliability in content analysis: Some common misconceptions and recommendations. Human Communications Research, 30, 411–433.
Krippendorff, K. (2004b). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Merton, R. K. (1948). Mass communication, popular taste, and organized social action. In L. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of ideas (pp. 95–118). New York: Harper & Row.
Linz, D., & Donnerstein, E. (1994). Dialogue: Sex and violence in slasher films: a reinterpretation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38, 243–246.
Lorber, J. (1999). Embattled terrain: Gender and sexuality. In M. M. Ferree, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 416–48). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Lueptow, L. B., Garovich-Szabo, L., & Lueptow, M. B. (2001). Social change and the persistence of sex typing: 1974–1997. Social Forces, 80
Magoulick, M. (2006). Frustrating female heroism: Mixed messages in Xena, Nikita, and Buffy. The Journal of Popular Culture, 39
Mastro, D. E., & Greenberg, B. S. (2000). The portrayal of racial minorities on prime time television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44
McCaughey, M., & King, N. (Eds.). (2001). Reel knockouts: Violent women in the movies. Austin: University of Texas Press.
McRobbie, A. (2004). Post-feminism and popular culture. Feminist Media Studies, 4
Metz, C. (2006, May). Hollywood reboots. PC Magazine, 62–74.
Modleski, T. (1991). Feminism without women: Culture and criticism in a ‘postfeminist age’. New York: Routledge.
Motion Picture Association (2005). U.S. entertainment industry: 2005 MPA market statistics. Retrieved from http://www.mpaa.org/InternationalTheatricalMarket.pdf
Motion Picture Association (2007). U.S. movie attendance study. Retrieved from http://www.mpaa.org/MovieAttendanceStudy.pdf
Mulvey, L. (1975). Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3), 6–18.
Pfeil, F. (1995). White guys: Studies in postmodern domination and difference. New York: Verso.
Powers, M. A. (1991). The heroine in western literature. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Ltd.
Rosen, M. (1973). Popcorn Venus: Women, movies, and the American dream. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan.
Rowe-Karlyn, K. (2003). Scream
, popular culture, and feminism’s third wave: “I’m not my mother.” Genders
, 38. Retrieved from http://www.genders.org/g38/g38_rowe_karlyn.html
Sapolsky, B. S., Molitor, F., & Luque, S. (2003). Sex and violence in slasher films: Re-examining the assumptions. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(1), 28–38.
Signorielli, N. (2003). Prime-time violence 1993–2001: Has the picture really changed? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47
Signorielli, N., & Bacue, A. (1999). Recognition and respect: A content analysis of prime-time television characters across three decades. Sex Roles, 41
Signorielli, N., & Kahlenberg, S. (2001). Television’s world of work in the nineties. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 45
Sklar, R. (1994). Movie-made America. New York: Vintage Books.
Smith, S. L., Wilson, B. J., Kunkel, D., Linz, D., Potter, J., Colvin, C. M., et al. (1998). Violence in television programming overall: University of California, Santa Barbara study. In National television violence study: Vol. 3 (pp. 5–220). Newbury Park: Sage.
Stacey, J. (2000). Desperately seeking difference. In A. E. Kaplan (Ed.), Feminism and film (pp. 456–465). New York: Oxford University Press.
Steinke, J. (2005). Cultural representations of gender and science. Science Communication, 27
Tasker, Y. (1993). Spectacular bodies: Gender, genre, and the action cinema
. London: Routledge.CrossRef
Tasker, Y. (1998). Working girls: Gender and sexuality in popular cinema. New York: Routledge.
Tasker, Y., & Negra, D. (Eds.). (2007). Interrogating postfeminism: Gender and the politics of popular culture. Durham: Duke University Press.
Trinh, T. M. (1991). When the moon waxes red: Representation, gender, and cultural politics. New York: Routledge.
Twenge, J. (1997). Changes in masculine and feminine traits over time: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 36
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1999). Women offenders. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/wo.pdf
U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Minority links. Data set 10—resident population by race, Hispanic origin, and single years of age: 2008. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/population.html
U.S. Department of Justice. (2007). FBI crime report: Expanded homicide data table 3. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2007/offenses/expanded_information/data/shrtable_03.html
U.S. Department of Labor. (2008). Women’s bureau: Quick stats of women workers, 2008. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/wb/stats/main.htm
Williams, L. R. (1991). Film bodies: Gender, genre, and excess. Film Quarterly, 44
Wootton, B. (1997, April). Gender differences in occupational employment. Monthly Labor Review, 23–33.