Sustained Pulmonary Delivery of a Water-Soluble Antibiotic Without Encapsulating Carriers
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- Ong, W., Nowak, P., Cu, Y. et al. Pharm Res (2016) 33: 563. doi:10.1007/s11095-015-1808-x
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Traditional polymeric nanoparticle formulations for prolonged local action during inhalation therapy are highly susceptible to muco-ciliary clearance. In addition, polymeric carriers are typically administered in high doses due to finite drug loading. For toxicological reasons, these carriers and their degradation byproducts are undesirable for inhalation therapy, particularly for chronic use, due to potential lung accumulation.
We synthesized a novel, insoluble prodrug (MRPD) of a time-dependent β-lactam, meropenem, and formulated MRPD into mucus-penetrating crystals (MRPD-MPCs). After characterizing their mucus mobility (in vitro) and stability, we evaluated the lung pharmacokinetics of intratracheally-instilled MRPD-MPCs and a meropenem solution in guinea pigs.
Meropenem levels rapidly declined in the lungs of guinea pigs receiving meropenem solution compared to those given MRPD-MPCs. At 9 h after dosing, drug levels in the lungs of animals that received meropenem solution dropped to 12 ng/mL, whereas those that received MRPD-MPCs maintained an average drug level of ≥1,065 ng/mL over a 12-h period.
This work demonstrated that the combination of prodrug chemistry and mucus-penetrating platform created nanoparticles that produced sustained levels of meropenem in guinea pig lungs. This strategy represents a novel approach for sustained local drug delivery to the lung without using encapsulating matrices.
KEY WORDSantibiotics drug delivery meropenem mucus nanoparticle prodrug
Human lung microsomes
High-performance liquid chromatography
Luminal mucus layer
Minimum inhibitory concentration
Methoxy poly(ethylene) glycol
MRPD formulated as a mucus-penetrating crystal
Mean ensemble velocity