Original Paper

Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 222-238

First online:

Effects of Numbered Heads Together on the Daily Quiz Scores and On-Task Behavior of Students with Disabilities

  • Todd HaydonAffiliated withCECH University of Cincinnati Email author 
  • , Lawrence MaheadyAffiliated withSUNY Fredonia
  • , William HunterAffiliated withCECH University of Cincinnati

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Previous research has demonstrated that Numbered Heads Together, a cooperative learning strategy, is more effective than traditional teacher-led instruction in academic areas such as social studies and science. The current study compared the effects of two types of Numbered Heads Together strategies with a baseline condition during 7th grade language arts lessons. Results indicated that three students with various disabilities had higher percent intervals of on-task behavior and daily quiz scores during either Heads Together condition. Teacher satisfaction ratings suggested that Heads Together was easy to implement, and all three students preferred this strategy to baseline instruction. A discussion of study limitations, implications, and future research directions is included.


Numbered Heads Together Peer-assisted teaching Cooperative learning Teacher questions Language arts