Reliable Ratings or Reading Tea Leaves: Can Parent, Teacher, and Clinician Behavioral Ratings of Preschoolers Predict ADHD at Age Six?
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
To assess the relative ability of parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers to predict ADHD severity and diagnosis at 6 years of age. Hyperactive/inattentive preschoolers [N = 104, 75 % boys, Mean (SD) age = 4.37 (0.47) years] were followed over 2 years (mean = 26.44 months, SD = 5.66). At baseline (BL), parents and teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV and clinicians completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children following a psychological testing session. At age 6, [Mean (SD) age = 6.62 (0.35) years], parents were interviewed with the K-SADS-PL; teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV; and laboratory measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention were obtained from children. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses examined which combination of BL ratings best predicted 6-year-old ADHD diagnosis and severity, respectively. At age 6, 56 (53.8 %) children met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD. BL ratings from parent/teacher/clinician, parent/teacher and parent/clinician combinations significantly predicted children who had an ADHD diagnosis at age 6. Parent and clinician, but not teacher, behavior ratings were significant independent predictors of ADHD diagnosis and severity at 6-years-old. However, only clinician reports of preschoolers’ behaviors predicted laboratory measures of over-activity and inattention at follow-up. Cross-situationality is important for a diagnosis of ADHD during the preschool years. Among parents, teachers and clinicians, positive endorsements from all three informants, parent/teacher or parent/clinician appear to have prognostic value. Clinicians’ ratings of preschoolers’ inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are valid sources of information for predicting ADHD diagnosis and severity over time.
- Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.213. CrossRef
- American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (2011). ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Pediatrics, 128, 1–16. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2654. CrossRef
- American Psychiatric Association (2012). DSM-V development proposed revisions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevision/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=383#.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
- Barkley, R. A. (1991). The ecological validity of laboratory and analogue assessment methods of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 149–178. CrossRef
- Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
- Campbell, S., Ewing, L., Breaux, A., & Szumowski, E. (1986). Parent-referred problem three-year olds: follow-up at school entry. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1986.tb00635.x. CrossRef
- Conners, C. K. (2004). Conners’ continuous performance test (CPT II) version 5 for windows: Technical guide and software manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
- Costello, E. J., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Pervasive and situational hyperactivity—confounding effect of informant: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 367–376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1991.tb00313.x. CrossRef
- Dirks, M. A., De Los Reyes, A., Briggs-Gowan, M., Cella, D., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2012). Annual research review: embracing not erasing contextual variability in children’s behavior—theory and utility in the selection and use of methods and informants in developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 558–574. doi:10.111/j.1469-7610.2012.02537x. CrossRef
- Duhig, A. M., Renk, K., Epstein, M. K., & Phares, V. (2000). Interparental agreement on internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 435–453. doi:10.1093/clipsy.7.4.435. CrossRef
- DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulus, A. D., & Reid, R. (1998). ADHD Rating Scale IV: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. New York: Guilford.
- Gopin, C., Healey, D., Castelli, K., Marks, D., & Halperin, J. M. (2010). Usefulness of a clinician rating scale in identifying preschool children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13, 479–488. doi:10.1177/1087054709332476. CrossRef
- Grietens, H., Onghena, P., Prinzie, P., Gadeyne, E., Van Assche, V., Ghesqui`ere, P., et al. (2004). Comparison of mothers’, fathers’, and teachers’ reports on problem behavior in 5- to 6-year-old children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 137–146. doi:10.1023/B:JOBA.0000013661.14995.59. CrossRef
- Halperin, J. M., Sharma, V., Greenblatt, E., & Schwartz, S. T. (1991). Assessment of the continuous performance test: reliability and validity in a non-referred sample. Psychological Assessment, 3, 603–608. doi:10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.1683. CrossRef
- Hartman, C. A., Rhee, S. H., Willcutt, E. G., & Pennington, B. F. (2007). Modeling rater disagreement for ADHD: are parents or teachers biased? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 536–542. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9110-y. CrossRef
- Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective Bonferroni test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.
- Hunsley, J., & Mash, E. J. (2007). Evidence-based assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 29–51. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091419. CrossRef
- Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1996). The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children present and lifetime version (version 1.0). Pittsburgh: Dept of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
- Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Lee, S. S., & Willcutt, E. (2005). Instability of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 896–902. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.896. CrossRef
- Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174. doi:10.2307/2529310. CrossRef
- Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Lahey, B. B. (1990). Mental health professionals’ perception of the utility of children, mothers, and teachers as informants of childhood psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 136–143. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp1902_5. CrossRef
- Marcus, D. K., & Barry, T. D. (2011). Does attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have a dimensional latent structure? A taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 427–442. doi:10.1037/a0021405. CrossRef
- Mashburn, A. J., & Henry, G. T. (2004). Assessing school readiness: validity and bias in preschool and kindergarten teachers’ ratings. Educational Measurement Issues and Practice, 23, 16–30. CrossRef
- Mashburn, A. J., Hamre, B. K., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Teacher and classroom characteristics associated with teachers’ ratings of prekindergartners’ relationships and behaviors. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 24, 367–380. doi:10.1177/0734282906290594. CrossRef
- McGoey, K. E., DuPaul, G. J., Haley, E., & Shelton, T. L. (2007). Parent and teacher ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in preschool: the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 269–276. doi:10.1007/s10862-007-9048-y. CrossRef
- Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Peake, P. K. (1988). The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 687–696. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1247. CrossRef
- Mitsis, E. M., McKay, K. E., Schulz, K. P., Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (2000). Parent–teacher concordance for DSM-IV Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a clinic-referred sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 308–313. doi:10.1097/00004583-200003000-00012. CrossRef
- MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 1073–1086. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.12.1073. CrossRef
- Murray, D. W., Kollins, S., Hardy, K. K., Abikoff, H. B., Swanson, J. M., Cunningham, C., et al. (2007). Parent versus teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment study (PATS). Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 17, 605–619. CrossRef
- Nakao, K., & Treas, J. (1994). Updating occupational prestige and socioeconomic scores: how the new measures measure up. Sociological Methodology, 24, 1–72. doi:10.2307/270978. CrossRef
- Power, T. J., Doherty, B. J., Panichelli-Mindel, S. J., Karustis, J. L., Eiraldi, R. B., Anastopoulos, A. D., et al. (1998). The predictive validity of parent and teacher reports of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20, 57–81. doi:10.1023/A:1023035426642. CrossRef
- Reichenbach, L. C., Halperin, J. M., Sharma, V., & Newcorn, J. H. (1992). Children’s motor activity: reliability and relationship to attention and behavior. Developmental Neuropsychology, 8, 87–97. doi:10.1080/87565649209540517. CrossRef
- Sleator, E. K., & Ullmann, R. K. (1981). Can the physician diagnose hyperactivity in the office? Pediatrics, 67, 13–17.
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn Bacon.
- Verhulst, F. C., & Akkerhuis, G. W. (1989). Agreement between parents’ and teachers’ ratings of behavioral/emotional problems of children aged 4–12. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 123–136. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00772.x. CrossRef
- Wakschlag, L. S., Leventhal, B. L., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Danis, B., Keenan, K., Hill, C., et al. (2005). Defining the “disruptive” in preschooler behavior: what diagnostic observation can teach us. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 183–201. CrossRef
- Wechsler, D. (2004). The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition, technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
- Willcutt, E. G., Hartung, C. M., Lahey, B. B., Loney, J., & Pelham, W. E. (1999). Utility of behavior ratings by examiners during assessments of preschool children with attention/deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 463–472. doi:10.1023/A:1021984126774. CrossRef
- Reliable Ratings or Reading Tea Leaves: Can Parent, Teacher, and Clinician Behavioral Ratings of Preschoolers Predict ADHD at Age Six?
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Inter-rater agreement
- Cross-situationality; longitudinal
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, The City College of the City University of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY, 10031, USA
- 2. Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Yeshiva University, New York, USA
- 3. Department of Social Work, Ohio University Zanesville, 1425 Newark Road, Zanesville, OH, 43701, USA
- 4. Department of Psychology, Queens College of the City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY, 11367, USA
- 5. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, USA