Effects of waterfowl, large fish and periphyton on the spring growth of Potamogeton pectinatus L. in Lake Mogan, Turkey Article Received: 16 December 2003 Revised: 13 August 2004 Accepted: 08 September 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Sandsten, H., Beklioglu, M. & Ince, Ö. Hydrobiologia (2005) 537: 239. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-3077-2 Abstract
It has been argued that waterfowl and fish may threaten growth of submerged macrophytes, especially in spring during the early growth phase when plant biomass is low. A small reduction of biomass at that time might delay growth or decrease subsequent productivity. We investigated the impact of waterfowl and large fish on the spring growth of fennel pondweed (
Potamogeton pectinatusL.) by employing an exclosure experiment in the macrophyte-dominated clear-water Lake Mogan, Turkey. Birds and large fish were excluded from eight plots and both in situvegetation and macrophytes kept in pots were compared to eight open plots. Also, to investigate the effect of periphyton on plant growth it was removed from half of the pot plants. Exclusion of waterfowl and fish may decrease predation on macroinvertebrates, which in turn may affect periphyton, and macrophyte growth, why macroinvertebrates also were sampled. Waterfowl density was high (15–70 ind. of coot, Fulica atraL. ha −1), abundance of submerged plants was also high with a surface coverage of 70–80%, and benthivorous fish were present, mainly tench, ( Tinca tincaL.) and carp, ( Cyprinus carpioL.). Exclusion of waterfowl and large fish did not significantly affect the spring growth of pondweed; neither plants growing in situnor kept in pots. Removal of periphyton from the plants in the pots did not favour growth. The density of macroinvertebrates was not affected by the exclusion of waterfowl and large fish, but it was positively related to aboveground biomass of fennel pondweed. We suggest that even if waterfowl and large fish are in high densities, their effect on fennel pondweed spring growth in lakes with abundant submerged vegetation, such as Lake Mogan, is low. Keywords coot herbivory submerged plants alternative stable states References Anderson, M.G., Low, J.B. 1976 Use of sago pondweed by waterfowl on the Delta March, Manitoba Journal of Wildlife Management 40 233 242 Google Scholar
Beekman, J. H., M. R. van Eerden, S. Dirksen, 1991. Bewick’s swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii utilising the changing resource of Potamogeton pectinatus during autumn in the Netherlands. In Sears, J., Bacon P.J. (eds), Wildfowl, Supplement No. 1, Third IWRB International Swan Symposium: 238–248.
Beklioglu, M. 2002 Does biomanipulation work for warm-temperate lakes? Lake Eymir first case Study in Turkey NATO Science Series, IV. Earth and Environmental Sciences 13 207 215 Google Scholar Beklioglu, M., Ýnce, Ö., Tüzün, Ý. 2003 Restoration of the eutrophic Lake Eymir, Turkey, by biomanipulation after a major external nutrient control I Hydrobiologia 489 93 105 Google Scholar Burnak, S.L., Beklioglu, M. 2000 Macrophyte-dominated clear-water state of Lake Mogan Turkish Journal of Zoology 24 305 313 Google Scholar Diehl, S. 1992 Fish predation and benthic community structure: the role of omnivory and habitat complexity Ecology 73 1646 1661 Google Scholar Diehl, S., Kornijóv, R. 1998 Influence of submerged macrophytes on trophic intersactions among fish and macroinvertebrates Jeppesen, E. Søndergaard, Ma. Søndergaard, Mo. Christoffersen, K. eds. The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes Springer-Verlag NewYork Google Scholar
DSI (Devlet Su Isleri, Energy Bakanligi) 1993. Mogan gölü limnolojik etüd raporu. TC Bayindirlik ve Iskan Bakanligi DSI Genel Müdürlü_ü I_letme ve Bakim Dairesi Baskanligi (in Turkish).
Fernández, O.A., Murphy, K.J., López Cazorla, A., Sabbatini, M.R., Lazzari, M.A., Domaniewski, C.J.J., Irigoyen, J.H. 1998 Interrelationships of fish and channel environmental conditions with aquatic macrophytes in Argentine irrigation system Hydrobiologia 380 15 25 Google Scholar Garcia, L.M., Adelman, I.R. 1985 An in situ estimate of daily food consumption and alimentary canal evacuation rates in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L Journal of Fish Biology 27 487 494 Google Scholar Hargeby, A., Andersson, G., Blindow, I., Johansson, S. 1994 Trophic web structure in a shallow eutrophic lake during a dominance shift from phytoplankton to submerged macrophytes Hydrobiologia 279 83 90 Google Scholar Hurter, H. 1979 Nahrungsökologie des Blässhuhn (Fulica atra) an den Überwinterungsgewässern im nördlichen Alpenvorland Der Ornitologische Beobachter 76 257 288 Google Scholar Jeppesen, E., Jensen, J.P., Kristensen, P., Søndergaard, M., Mortensen, E., Sortkjær, O., Olrik, K. 1990 Fish manipulation as a lake restoration tool in shallow, eutrophic, temperate lakes. 2: threshold levels, long-term stability and conclusion Hydrobiologia 200/201 219 227 Google Scholar Kiørboe, T. 1980 Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper grund (Ringkøbing fjord, Denmark) and the impact of waterfowl grazing Journal of Applied Ecology 17 675 687 Google Scholar
Kiraç C.O., Karauz S., Aykurt A., Gürsan M., O. Arihan, in prep. Comprehensive monitoring of birds of Lake Mogan during the period of 1993–1994.
Lauridsen, T.L., Sandsten, H., Hald Møller, P. 2003 The restoration of a shallow lake by introducing Potamogetonspp.: the impact of waterfowl grazing Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 8 177 187 Google Scholar Lehmann, A., Castella, E., Lachavanne, J.-B. 1997 Morphological traits and spatial heterogeneity of aquatic plants along sediment and depth gradients, Lake Geneva, Switzerland Aquatic Botany 55 281 299 Google Scholar
Lodge D.M., Cronin G., van Donk E., Froelich A.J. (1998). Impact of herbivory on plant standing crop: comparisons among biomes, between vascular and nonvascular plants, and among freshwaterherbivore taxa. In : Jeppesen E., Søndergaard Ma., Søndergaard Mo., Christoffersen K.(eds). The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes. Springer-Verlag, New York
Maitland, P.S., Campbell, R.N. 1992Freshwater Fishes Harper Collins Publishers London Google Scholar Marklund, O., Sandsten, H. 2002 Reduction of benthic macroinvertebrates due to waterfowl foraging on submerged vegetation during autumn migration Aquatic Ecology 36 541 547 Google Scholar
Mitchell S.F., Perrow M.R.(1998). Interactions between grazing birds and macrophytes. In : Jeppesen, E., Ma. Søndergaard, Mo. Søndergaard, K. Christoffersen (eds). The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes. Springer-Verlag, New York
Morin, P.J. 1998 Realism, precision and generality in experimental ecology Resetarits, W.J., Jr. Bernardo, J. eds. Experimental Ecology Issues and Perspectives. Oxford University Press New York 50 70 Google Scholar
Özesmi U. (1999). Ecology and politics of rehabilitation: Mogan Lake wetland ecosystem, Ankara, Turkey. In : Streever W.(eds). An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation: 181–187.
Perrow, M.R., Schutten, J., Howes, J.R., Holzer, T., Madgwick, F.G., Jowitt, A.J.D. 1997 Interactions between coot ( Fulica atra) and submerged macrophytes: the role of birds in the restoration process Hydrobiologia 342/343 241 255 Google Scholar Pilon, J., Santamaría, L., Hootsmans, M., Vierssen, W. 2003 Latitudinal variation in Potamogeton pectinatus L.: vegetative growth and asexual reproduction Plant Ecology 165 247 262 Google Scholar Scheffer, M., Hosper, S.H., Meijer, M.-L., Moss, B., Jeppesen, E. 1993 Alternative Equilibria in Shallow Lakes Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 275 279 Google Scholar Sidorkewicj, N.S., Lopez, A., Cazorla, C., Fernandez, O.A., Mockel, G.C., Burgos, M.A. 1999 Effects of Cyprinus carpio on Potamogeton pectinatus in experimental culture: The incidence of the periphyton Hydrobiologia 415 13 19 Google Scholar Søndergaard, M., Bruun, L., Lauridsen, T., Jeppesen, E., Vindbæk Madsen, T. 1996 The impact of grazing waterfowl on submerged macrophytes in a shallow eutrophic lake Aquatic Botany 53 73 84 Google Scholar Spencer, D.F. 1994 Estimating the impact of grass carp on sago pondweed in the Byrnes Canal: implications for biological control in northern California irrigation systems Ecological Modelling 72 187 204 Google Scholar
Snow D.W., Perrins C.M. (eds), R. Gillmor, B. Hillcoat, Roselaar C.S., D. Vincent, D. I. M. Wallace, Wilson M.G., 1998. Handbook of the Birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Strand, J.A., Weisner, S.E.B. 2001 Morphological plastic responses to water depth and wave exposure in an aquatic plant ( Myriophyllum spicatum) Journal of Ecology 89 166 175 Google Scholar Van Donk, E., Otte, A. 1996 Effects of grazing by fish and waterfowl on the biomass and species compostion of submerged macrophytes Hydrobiologia 340 285 290 Google Scholar Van Donk, E., Deckere, E., Klein Breteteler, J.G.P., Meueleman, J.T. 1994 Herbivory by fish and waterfowl on macrophytes in a biomanipulated lake: effects on long-term recovery Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie 25 2139 2143 Google Scholar Van Dijk, G.M. 1993 Dynamics and attenuation characteristics of periphyton upon artificial substratum under various light conditions and some additional observations on periphyton upon Potamogeton pectinatus L Hydrobiologia 252 143 161 Google Scholar Van Wijk, R.J. 1988 Ecological studies on Potamogeton pectinatus L.I. General charachteristics, biomass production and life cycles under field conditions Aquatic Botany 31 211 258 Google Scholar Weisner, S.E.B., Strand, J.A., Sandsten, H. 1997 Mechanisms regulating abundance of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes Oecologia 109 592 599 Google Scholar Wiegleb, G., Kaplan, Z. 1998 An account of the species of Potamogeton L. (Potamogetonaceae) Folia Geobotanica 33 241 316 Google Scholar