, Volume 4, Issue 8, pp 758-764

First online:

The Era of Management Is Over

  • Donald LudwigAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada

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The management paradigm fails when confronted with complex problems where there are no clearly defined objectives and a plethora of mutually contradictory approaches, each of which is plausible in a particular frame of reference. The notion of the disinterested expert cannot withstand scrutiny, and putative experts must earn public trust. Scientists must be prepared to share their advisory and decision-making roles with a variety of interested parties and participate with them on an equal footing.

Key words: environmental management; radical uncertainty; technocracy; science and values; wicked problems.