The Era of Management Is Over
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- Ludwig, D. Ecosystems (2001) 4: 758. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0044-x
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The management paradigm fails when confronted with complex problems where there are no clearly defined objectives and a plethora of mutually contradictory approaches, each of which is plausible in a particular frame of reference. The notion of the disinterested expert cannot withstand scrutiny, and putative experts must earn public trust. Scientists must be prepared to share their advisory and decision-making roles with a variety of interested parties and participate with them on an equal footing.