, Volume 4, Issue 8, pp 758–764

The Era of Management Is Over

  • Donald Ludwig

DOI: 10.1007/s10021-001-0044-x

Cite this article as:
Ludwig, D. Ecosystems (2001) 4: 758. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0044-x


The management paradigm fails when confronted with complex problems where there are no clearly defined objectives and a plethora of mutually contradictory approaches, each of which is plausible in a particular frame of reference. The notion of the disinterested expert cannot withstand scrutiny, and putative experts must earn public trust. Scientists must be prepared to share their advisory and decision-making roles with a variety of interested parties and participate with them on an equal footing.

Key words: environmental management; radical uncertainty; technocracy; science and values; wicked problems.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Ludwig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, CanadaCA