Original Communication

Journal of Neurology

, Volume 263, Issue 4, pp 677-688

First online:

Taste dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

  • Richard L. DotyAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Otorhinolarynology: Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Email author View author's OrcID profile 
  • , Isabelle A. TourbierAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Otorhinolarynology: Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
  • , Dzung L. PhamAffiliated withCenter for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Henry Jackson Foundation
  • , Jennifer L. CuzzocreoAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  • , Jayaram K. UdupaAffiliated withMedical Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvlania
  • , Bilge KaracaliAffiliated withElectrical and Electronics Engineering Department, İzmir Institute of Technology
  • , Evan BealsAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Psychology, Michigan State University
  • , Laura FabiusAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Otorhinolarynology: Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
  • , Fidias E. Leon-SarmientoAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Otorhinolarynology: Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
    • , Gul MoonisAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center
    • , Taehoon KimAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Otorhinolarynology: Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
    • , Toru MihamaAffiliated withSmell and Taste Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Otorhinolarynology: Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
    • , Rena J. GeckleAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital
    • , David M. YousemAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital

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Abstract

Empirical studies of taste function in multiple sclerosis (MS) are rare. Moreover, a detailed assessment of whether quantitative measures of taste function correlate with the punctate and patchy myelin-related lesions found throughout the CNS of MS patients has not been made. We administered a 96-trial test of sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (caffeine) and salty (NaCl) taste perception to the left and right anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions of 73 MS patients and 73 matched controls. The number and volume of lesions were assessed using quantitative MRI in 52 brain regions of 63 of the MS patients. Taste identification scores were significantly lower in the MS patients for sucrose (p = 0.0002), citric acid (p = 0.0001), caffeine (p = 0.0372) and NaCl (p = 0.0004) and were present in both anterior and posterior tongue regions. The percent of MS patients with identification scores falling below the 5th percentile of controls was 15.07 % for caffeine, 21.9 % for citric acid, 24.66 % for sucrose, and 31.50 % for NaCl. Such scores were inversely correlated with lesion volumes in the temporal, medial frontal, and superior frontal lobes, and with the number of lesions in the left and right superior frontal lobes, right anterior cingulate gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Regardless of the subject group, women outperformed men on the taste measures. These findings indicate that a sizable number of MS patients exhibit taste deficits that are associated with MS-related lesions throughout the brain.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis Magnetic resonance imaging Taste Chemosensory transduction Taste disorders Sex differences