Photoinduced Toxicity of Fluoranthene to Seven Marine Benthic Crustaceans

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Seven marine benthic crustaceans were exposed in 4 d water-only toxicity tests to five concentrations of fluoranthene. After exposures, mortality (LC50) and the ability to bury in clean sediment (EC50) were determined. Survivors were then exposed to UV radiation for 1 h. The differences between LC50s and EC50s before and after UV exposure were used to assess photoinduced toxicity. UV exposure enhanced fluoranthene toxicity by as much as tenfold in five of the seven species tested (Rhepoxynius abronius, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Grandidierella japonica, and Corophium insidiosum). Species having the greatest potential for natural exposure to sunlight (Excirolana vancouverensis and Emerita analoga) were the least sensitive to photoinduced fluoranthene toxicity. Although photoinduced toxicity needs to be considered in environmental risk assessments, testing should be done, using ecologically relevant species and exposures.