Article

Diabetologia

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 902-908

First online:

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-type 1 diabetes and its association with disease progression

  • Jennifer RaabAffiliated withForschergruppe Diabetes e.V.Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München
  • , Eleni Z. GiannopoulouAffiliated withForschergruppe Diabetes e.V.Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München
  • , Simone SchneiderAffiliated withForschergruppe Diabetes e.V.
  • , Katharina WarnckeAffiliated withForschergruppe Diabetes e.V.Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität MünchenDepartment of Pediatrics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München
  • , Miriam KrasmannAffiliated withInstitute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München
  • , Christiane WinklerAffiliated withForschergruppe Diabetes e.V.Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München
  • , Anette-Gabriele ZieglerAffiliated withForschergruppe Diabetes e.V.Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München Email author 

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Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Vitamin D deficiency is common in people with type 1 diabetes, but its role in disease progression is unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in prediabetes (defined as the presence of multiple islet autoantibodies), and investigate whether or not progression to type 1 diabetes is faster in children with vitamin D deficiency and multiple islet autoantibodies.

Methods

Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured in 108 children with multiple islet autoantibodies within 2 years of islet autoantibody seroconversion, in 406 children who remained islet autoantibody-negative and in 244 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Children with multiple islet autoantibodies were prospectively followed for a median of 5.8 years (interquartile range 3.4–8.6 years) to monitor progression to type 1 diabetes.

Results

In the cross-sectional analysis, 25(OH)D levels were lower and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l) was higher in children with prevalent multiple islet autoantibodies than in islet autoantibody-negative children (59.9 ± 3.0 vs 71.9 ± 1.5 nmol/l; p < 0.001; 39.8% vs 28.3%; p = 0.021). The differences in vitamin D levels between the groups were greatest in summer. The cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes at 10 years after seroconversion was similar between children with vitamin D deficiency and those with sufficient vitamin D levels (51.8% [95% CI 29.3, 74.3] vs 55.4% [95% CI 35.5, 72.3], p = 0.8).

Conclusions/interpretation

Vitamin D levels were lower in children with multiple islet autoantibodies and in children with type 1 diabetes than in autoantibody-negative children. However, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with faster progression to type 1 diabetes in children with multiple islet autoantibodies.

Keywords

25(OH)D Islet autoimmunity Type 1 diabetes Vitamin D