Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 351–371

Metacognitive theories

  • Gregory Schraw
  • David Moshman

DOI: 10.1007/BF02212307

Cite this article as:
Schraw, G. & Moshman, D. Educ Psychol Rev (1995) 7: 351. doi:10.1007/BF02212307


This paper proposes a framework for understanding people's theories about their own cognition. Metacognitive theories are defined broadly as systematic frameworks used to explain and direct cognition, metacognitive knowledge, and regulatory skills. We distinguish tacit, informal, and formal metacognitive theories and discuss critical differences among them using criteria borrowed from the developmental literature. We also consider the origin and development of these theories, as well as implications for educational research and practice.

Key Words

metacognition self-regulation metacognitive theories knowledge 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory Schraw
    • 1
  • David Moshman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincoln

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