Influence of Bi3+ ions in enhancing the magnitude of positive temperature coefficients of resistance in n-BaTiO3 ceramics

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Abstract

Bi3+ ions substituting at Ba-sites in a limited concentration range with another donor dopant occupying the Ti-sites in polycrystalline BaTiO3 enhanced the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) by over seven orders of magnitude. These ceramics did not require normal post sinter annealing or a change to an oxygen atmosphere during annealing. These ceramics had low porosities coupled with better stabilities to large applied electric fields and chemically reducing atmospheres. Bi3+ ions limited the grain growth to less than 8 Μm in size, they enhanced the concentration of acceptor-type trap centres at the grain-boundary-layer regions and maintained complete tetragonality at low grain sizes in BaTiO3 ceramics.