Andrewartha, H. G. & L. C. Birch., 1954. The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Angermeier, P. L., 1982. Resource seasonality and fish diets in an Illinois stream. Envir. Biol. Fishes 7: 251–264.
Angermeier, P. L., 1987. Spatiotemporal variation in habitat selection by fishes in small Illinois streams. In W. J. Matthews & D. C. Heins (eds), The Ecology and Evolution of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman (O.K.): 52–60.
Beschta, R. L., R. E. Bilby, G. W. Brown, L. B. Holtby & T. D. Hoffstra, 1987. Stream temperature and aquatic habitat: Fisheries and forestry interactions. In E. O. Salo & T. W. Cundy (eds), Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions. University of Washington, Institute of Forest Resources Contribution No. 57; Seattle (W.A.): 191–232.
Bibly, R. E., 1984. Characteristics and frequency of cool-water areas in a western Washington stream. J. Freshwat. Ecol. 2: 593–602.
Bisson, P. A, J. A. Nielsen, R. A. Palmason & E. L. Grove, 1982. A system of naming habitat types in small streams, with examples of habitat utilization by salmonids during low. In N. B. Armantrout (ed.), Acquisition and Utilization of Aquatic Habitat Inventory Information. Western Division of the American Fisheries Society, Portland (O.R.): 62–73.
Bisson, P. A., R. E. Bilby, M. D. Bryant, C. A. Dolloff, G. B. Grette, R. A. House, M. L. Murphy, K. V. Koski & J. R. Sedell, 1987. Large woody debris in forested streams of the Pacific northwest: Past, present, and future. In E. O. Salo & T. W. Cundy (eds), Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions. University of Washington, Institute of Forest Resources Contribution No. 57, Seattle (W.A.): 143–190.
Correll, D. L., 1991. Human impact on the functioning of landscape boundaries. In M. M. Holland, P. G. Risser & R. J. Naiman (eds), Ecotones: The Role of Landscape Boundaries in the Management and Restoration of Changing Environments. Chapman and Hall, New York: 90–109.
Cunjak, R. A., 1988. Physiological consequences of over wintering in streams: the cost of acclimatization. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 45: 443–452.
Dunning, J. B., B. J. Danielson & H. R. Pulliam, 1992. Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos 65: 169–175.
Elliott, J. M., 1989. The natural regulation of numbers and growth in contrasting populations of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in two lake district streams. Freshwat. Biol. 21: 7–19.
Forman, R. T. & M. Godron, 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 619 pp.
Frissell, C. A., W. J. Liss, C. E. Warren & M. D. Hurley, 1986. A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: Viewing streams in a watershed context. Envir. Mgmt 10: 199–214.
Gilliam, J. F., D. F. Fraser & M. Alkins-Koo, 1993. Structure of a tropical fish community: A role for biotic interactions. Ecology. In press.
Gorman, O. T., 1986: Assemblage organization of stream fishes: the effect of rivers on adventitious streams. Am. Nat. 128: 611–616.
Gorman, O. T. & J. R. Karr, 1978. Habitat structure and stream fish communities. Ecology 59: 507–515.
Gregory, S. V., F. J. Swanson, W. A. McKee & K. W. Cummins, 1991. An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones. BioScience 41: 540–551.
Hicks, B. J., J. D. Hall, P. A. Bisson & J. R. Sedell, 1991. In W. R. Meehan (ed.), Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19, Bethesda (M.D.): 483–518.
Hynes, H. B. N., 1970. Ecology of Running Waters. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 555 pp.
Jones, F. R., 1968. Fish Migration. Edward Arnold, London, 325 pp.
Karr, J. R. & I. J. Schlosser, 1978. Water resources and the land-water interface. Science 201: 229–234.
Keller, E. A. & F. J. Swanson, 1979. Effects of large organic material on channel form and fluvial processes. Earth Surface Processes 4: 361–380.
Lobb, M. D. & D. J. Orth, 1991. Habitat use by an assemblage of fish in a large warmwater stream. Trans. am. Fish. Soc. 120: 65–78.
Lowe-McConnell, R. H., 1987. Ecological Studies in Tropical Fish Communities. Cambridge University Press, London, 382 pp.
Mason, J. C., 1976. Response of underyearling coho salmon to supplemental feeding in a natural stream. Wildl. Manag. 40: 775–788.
Matthews, W. J. & D. C. Heins (eds), 1987. Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 310 pp.
McIntire, C. D. & J. A. Colby, 1978. A hierarchical model of lotic ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 31: 61–104.
Minshall, G. W., 1978. Autotrophy in stream ecosystems. BioScience 28: 767–771.
Moore, K. M. S. & S. V. Gregory, 1988a. Summer habitat utilization and ecology of cutthroat trout fry (Salmo clarki) in Cascade Mountain streams. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 45: 1921–1930.
Moore, K. M. S. & S. V. Gregory, 1988b. Response of youngof-the-year cutthroat trout to manipulation of habitat structure in small stream. Trans. am. Fish. Soc. 117: 162–170.
Naiman, R. J., H. DeCamps, J. Pastor & C. A. Johnson, 1988. The potential importance of boundaries to fluvial ecosystems. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 7: 289–306.
Naveh, Z. & A. S. Lieberman, 1984. Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, 356 pp.
Northcote, T. G., 1978. Migratory strategies and production in freshwater fishes. In S. D. Gerking (ed.), Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford: 326–359.
Osborne, L. L. & M. J. Wiley, 1992. Influence of tributary spatial position on the structure of warmwater fish communities. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 49: 671–681.
Peterjohn, W. T. & D. L. Correll, 1984. Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: Observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecology 65: 1466–1475.
Pickett, S. T. A. & P. S. White (eds), 1985. The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. Academic Press, New York.
Pinay, G. & H. Decamps, 1988. The role of riparian woods in regulating nitrogen fluxes between the alluvial aquifer and surface water: a conceptual model. Regul. Rivers 2: 507–516.
Power, G. & M. Power, 1995. Ecotones and fluvial regimes in arctic lotic environments. Hydrobiologia 303 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 105): 111–124.
Power, M. E., 1984a: Habitat quality and the distribution of algae-grazing catfish in a Panamanian stream. J. anim. Ecol. 53: 357–374.
Power, M. E., 1984b: Depth distributions of armored catfish: predator-induced resource avoidance? Ecology 65: 523–528.
Power, M. E., 1987. Predator avoidance by grazing fishes in temperate and tropical streams: Importance of stream depth and prey size. In W. C. Kerfoot & A. Sih (eds), Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities. University Press of New England, Hanover, (N.H.): 333–351.
Power, M. E., T. L. Dudley & S. D. Cooper, 1989. Grazing catfish, fishing birds, and attached algae in a Panamanian stream. Envir. Biol. Fishes. 26: 285–294.
Pringle, C. M., R. J. Naiman, G. Bretschko, J. R. Karr, M. W. Oswood, J. R. Webster, P. B. Moyle, B. Statzner & I. R. Wais de Bagden, 1988. Patch dynamics in lotic ecosystems: the stream as a mosaic. J. N. Amer. Benth. Soc. 7: 503–524.
Pulliam, H. R., 1988. Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am. Nat. 132: 652–661.
Richards, K., 1982. Rivers: Form and Process in Alluvial Channels. Methuen, New York.
Risser, P. G., J. R. Karr & R. T. T. Forman, 1984. Landscape ecology: directions and approaches. Illinois Natural History Special Publication No. 2. Champaign (I.L.).
Ross, S. T., W. J. Matthews & A. A. Echelle, 1985. Persistence of stream fish assemblages: effects of environmental change. Am. Nat. 126: 24–40.
Schiemer, F. & T. Spindler, 1989. Endangered fish species of the Danube River in Austria. Regul. Rivers 4: 397–407.
Schiemer,F. & M. Zalewski, 1992. The importance of riparian ecotones for diversity and productivity of riverine fish communities. Neth. J. Zool. 42: 323–335.
Schiemer, F., T. Spindler, H. Wintersberger, A. Schneider & A. Chovanec, 1991. Fish fry associations: important indicators for the ecological status of large rivers. Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 24: 2497–2500.
Schlosser, I. J., 1982. Fish community structure and function along two habitat gradients in a headwater stream. Ecol. Monogr. 52: 395–414.
Schlosser, I. J., 1987a. The role of predation in age and size related habitat use by stream fishes. Ecology 68: 651–659.
Schlosser, I. J., 1987b. A conceptual framework for fish communities in small warmwater streams. In W. J. Matthews & D. C. Heins (eds), The Ecology and Evolution of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman (O.K.): 17–24
Schlosser, I. J., 1988. Predation risk and habitat use by two size classes of a stream cyprinid: Experimental test of a hypothesis. Oikos 52: 36–40.
Schlosser, I. J., 1991. Stream fish ecology: a landscape perspective. BioScience 41: 704–712.
Schlosser, I. J. & L. A. Toth, 1984. Niche relationships and population ecology of rainbow (Etheostoma caeruleum) and fantail (E. flabellare) darters in a temporally variable environment. Oikos 42: 229–238.
Schlosser, I. J. & P. L. Angermeier, 1990. The influence of environmental variability, resource abundance and predation on juvenile cyprinid and centrachid fishes. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 37: 267–286.
Sedell, J. R., G. R. Reeves, F. R. Hauer, J. A. Stanford & C. P. Hawkins, 1990. Role of refugia in recovery from disturbances: modern fragmented and disconnected river systems. Envir. Mgmt 14: 711–724.
Swanston, D. N., 1991. Natural processes. In W. R. Meehan (ed.), Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19, Bethesda (M.D.): 139–179.
Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell & C. E. Cushing, 1980. The river continuum concept. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37: 130–137.
Werner, E. E. & J. F. Gilliam, 1984. The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size structured populations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15: 395–425.
Yang, C. T., 1971. Formation of riffles and pools. Wat. Resour. Res. 7: 1567–1574.