Randomized Trial of Perindopril, Enalapril, Losartan and Telmisartan in Overweight or Obese Patients with Hypertension
Background and Objectives
Obesity exacerbates hypertension and stimulates the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). Full-dose RAAS inhibition could be a therapeutic option in overweight or obese patients with hypertension. This study compared four RAAS inhibitors at full therapeutic doses to determine their effect on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk factors in these patients.
We conducted a 24-week, single-blind, randomized, parallel-group study in 120 overweight or obese patients (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2) with hypertension, aged 18–60 years. The primary endpoint was the change in mean 24-h systolic BP and diastolic BP from baseline to study end. Central BP, arterial stiffness, and metabolic and cardiac indices were also investigated. Patients were randomly allocated to perindopril 10 mg/day, enalapril 20 mg/day, losartan 100 mg/day or telmisartan 80 mg/day. Nonpharmacological interventions were also recommended.
Reductions in mean 24-h systolic BP (and diastolic BP) were all significant (p < 0.05 versus baseline) for perindopril, enalapril, losartan and telmisartan: systolic BP −22, −11, −12 and −15 mmHg, respectively; (and diastolic BP −13, −6, −13 and −12 mmHg, respectively). Aortic elasticity improved with perindopril and telmisartan. Perindopril was associated with the greatest reductions in central aortic BP and leptin levels [30 % versus 2 %, 7 % and 14 % with enalapril, losartan and telmisartan, respectively (all p < 0.05 versus perindopril)]. Reductions in other BP, echocardiographic, metabolic and anthropometric parameters occurred with all treatments.
Full-dose RAAS inhibition, particularly with perindopril, effectively reduces BP, improves arterial structure and regulates cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese patients with hypertension.