, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 25-34
Date: 22 Jan 2014

Kinematic Modeling Based Decomposition of Transmitral Flow (Doppler E-Wave) Deceleration Time into Stiffness and Relaxation Components

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


The mechanical suction-pump feature of the left ventricle aspirates atrial blood and generates a rapid rise and fall in transmitral flow (Doppler E-wave). Initially, E-wave deceleration time (DT), a routine index of clinical diastolic function, was thought to be determined only by chamber stiffness. Kinematic modeling of filling, in analogy to damped oscillatory motion [Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism], has been extensively validated and accurately predicts clinically observed E-wave contours while, revealing that DT is actually an algebraic function of both stiffness (PDF parameter k) and relaxation (PDF parameter c). We hypothesize that kinematic modeling based E-wave analysis accurately predicts the stiffness (DTs) and relaxation (DTr) components of DT such that DT = DTs + DTr. For validation, pressure–volume (PV) and E-wave data from 12 control (DT < 220 ms) and 12 delayed-relaxation (DT > 220 ms) subjects, 738 beats total, were analyzed. For each E-wave, DTs and DTr was compared to simultaneous, gold-standard, high fidelity (Millar catheter) determined, chamber stiffness (K = ΔPV) and chamber relaxation (time-constant of isovolumic relaxation—τ), respectively. For the group linear regression yielded DTs = α K + β (R = 0.82) with α = −0.38 and β = 0.20, and DTr = m τ + b (R = 0.94) with m = 2.88 and b = −0.12. We conclude that PDF-based E-wave analysis provides the DTs and DTr components of DT with simultaneous chamber stiffness (K) and relaxation (τ) respectively, as primary determinants. This kinematic modeling based method of E-wave analysis is immediately translatable clinically and can assess the effects of pathology and pharmacotherapy as causal determinants of DT.

Associate Editor Ajit P. Yoganathan oversaw the review of this article.