Is vertical migration in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) influenced by an underlying circadian rhythm?
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a keystone species in the southern ocean ecosystem where it is the main consumer of phytoplankton and constitutes the main food item of many higher predators. Both food and predators are most abundant at the surface, thus krill hide in the depth of the ocean during the day and migrate to the upper layers at night, to feed at a time when the predatory risk is lowest. Although the functional significance of this diel vertical migration (DVM) is clear and its modulation by environmental factors has been described, the involvement of an endogenous circadian clock in this behaviour is as yet not fully resolved. We have analysed the circadian behaviour of Euphausia superba in a laboratory setting and here we present the first description of locomotor activity rhythms for this species. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the circadian clock plays a key role in DVM. They also suggest that the interplay between food availability, social cues and the light:dark cycle acts as the predominant Zeitgeber for DVM in this species.
- Ables J. G. 1974 Maximum entropy spectral analysis. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 15, 383–393.
- Aguzzi J., Company J. B. and Abello P. 2004 Locomotor activity rhythms of continental slope Nephrops norvegicus (Decapoda: Nephropidae). J. Crustacean Biol. 24, 282–290. CrossRef
- Bargmann H. E. 1937 The reproductive system of Euphausia superba. Discovery Rep. 14, 327–349.
- Buchholz F., Watkins J. L., Priddle J., Morris D. J. and Ricketts C. 1996 Moult in relation to some aspects of reproduction and growth in swarms of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Mar. Biol. 127, 201–208. CrossRef
- Chatfield C. 1989 The analysis of time series: an introduction. Chapman and Hall, London.
- Cottier F. R., Tarling G. A., Wold G. A. and Falk Petersen S. 2006 Unsynchronized and synchronized vertical migration of zooplankton in a high arctic fjord. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 2586–2599.
- de la Iglesia H.O., Cambras T., Schwartz W. J. and Diez-Noguera A. 2004 Forced desynchronization of dual circadian oscillators within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Curr. Biol. 14, 796–800. CrossRef
- Dowse H. B. 2007 Statistical analysis of biological rhythm data. In Circadian rhythms: methods and protocols (ed. E. Rosato), pp. 29–48. Humana Press, Totowa.
- Dowse H. B. 2008 Mid-range ultradian rhythms in Drosophila and the circadian clock problem. In Ultradian rhythmicity in biological systems: an inquiry into fundamental principles (ed. D.L. Lloyd and E. Rossi). Springer, Berlin (in Press).
- Dowse H. B. and Ringo J. 1987 Further evidence that the circadian clock in Drosophila is a population of coupled ultradian oscillators. J. Biol. Rhythms 2, 65–76. CrossRef
- Dowse H. B. and Ringo J. M. 1989 The search for hidden periodicities in biological time series revisited. J. Theor. Biol. 139, 487–515. CrossRef
- Dowse H. B. and Palmer J. D. 1990 Evidence for ultradian rhythmicity in an intertidal crab. In Progress in clinical and biological research, Vol. 341B. Chronobiology: its role in clinical medicine, general biology and agriculture, Part B (ed. D. K. Hayes, R. Pauly and R. Reiter), pp. 691–697. Wiley Liss, New York.
- Everson I. 1982 Diurnal variations in mean volume backscattering strength of an Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) patch. J. Plank. Res. 4, 155–162. CrossRef
- Everson I. 1983 Variations in vertical distribution and density of krill swarms in the vicinity of South Georgia. Mem. Natl. Inst. Polar Res. 27, 84–92.
- Fernández de Miguel F. and Aréchiga H. 1994 Circadian locomotor activity and its entrainment by food in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. J. Exp. Biol. 190, 9–21.
- Fraser P. J. and Macdonald A. G. 1994 Crab hydrostatic pressure sensors. Nature 371, 383–384. CrossRef
- Frost B. W. 1988 Variability and possible adaptive significance of diel vertical migration in Calanus pacificus, a planktonic marine copepod. Bull. Mar. Sci. 43, 675–694.
- Forward R. B. 1988 Diel vertical migration: zooplankton photobiology and behaviour. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 26, 361–393.
- Gliwicz J. Z. 1986 Predation and the evolution of vertical migration in zooplankton. Nature 320, 746–747. CrossRef
- Godlewska M. 1996 Vertical migrations of krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Polish Arch. Hydrobiol. 43, 9–63.
- Hardy A. C. and Gunther E. R. 1935 The plankton of the South Georgia whaling grounds and adjacent waters, 1926–1927. Discovery Rep. 11, 1–456.
- Kay S. M. and Marple S. G. Jr 1981 Spectrum analysis, a modern perspective. IEEE Proc. 69, 1380–1419. CrossRef
- Kils U. 1981 The swimming behaviour, swimming performance and energy balance of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. BIOMASS Scient. Res. Ser. 3, 1–121.
- Levine J. D., Funes P., Dowse H. B. and Hall J. C. 2002a Signal analysis of behavioural and molecular cycles. BMC Neurosci. 3, 1–25. CrossRef
- Levine J. D., Funes P., Dowse H. B. and Hall J. C. 2002b Resetting the circadian clock by social experience in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 298, 2010–2012. CrossRef
- Macdonald A. G. 1997 Hydrostatic pressure as an environmental factor in life processes. Comp. Biochem. Phys. A 116, 291–297. CrossRef
- Mauchline J. and Fisher L. R. 1969 The biology of euphausiids. Adv. Mar. Biol. 7, 1–454. CrossRef
- Naylor E. 1958 Tidal and diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity in Carcinus maenas. J. Exp. Biol. 35, 602–610.
- Pearre S. Jr 2003 Eat and run? The hunger/satiation hypothesis in vertical migration: history, evidence and consequences. Biol. Rev. 78, 1–79. CrossRef
- Pittendrigh C. S., Kyner W. T. and Takamura T. 1991 The amplitude of circadian oscillations: temperature dependence, latitudinal clines, and the photoperiodic time measurement. J. Biol. Rhythms 6, 299–313. CrossRef
- Rieger D., Shafer O. T., Tomioka K. and Helfrich-Forster C. 2006 Functional analysis of circadian pacemaker neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Neurosci. 26, 2531–2543. CrossRef
- Ringelberg J. 1995 Changes in light intensity and diel vertical migration: a comparison of marine and freshwater environments. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 75, 15–25. CrossRef
- Roberts D. H., Lehár J. and Dreher J. 1987 Time series analysis with CLEAN. I. Derivation of a spectrum. Astron. J. 93, 968–989. CrossRef
- Rosato E. and Kyriakou C. P. 2006 Analysis of locomotor activity rhythms in Drosophila. Nat. Protoc. 1, 559–568. CrossRef
- Strand S. W. and Hamner W. M. 1990 Schooling behavior of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in laboratory aquaria: reactions to chemical and visual stimuli. Mar. Biol. 106, 355–359. CrossRef
- Tarling G. A. and Johnson M. L. 2006 Satiation gives krill that sinking feeling. Curr. Biol. 16, R173–R175. CrossRef
- Tarling G. A., Cuzin-Roudy J. and Buchholz F. 1999 Vertical migration behaviour in the northern krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica is influenced by moult and reproductive processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 190, 253–262. CrossRef
- Tarling G. A., Cuzin-Roudy J., Thorpe S., Shreeve R., Ward P. and Murphy E. 2007 Recruitment of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba in the South Georgia region: adult fecundity and the fate of larvae. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331, 161–179. CrossRef
- van Oort B. E. H., Tyler N. J. C., Gerkema M. P., Folkow L., Schytte-Blix A. and Stokkan K. A. 2005 Circadian organization in reindeer. Nature 438, 1095–1096. CrossRef
- Velsch J.-P. and Champalbert G. 1994 Swimming activity rhythms in Meganyctiphanes norvegica. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sci. Vie 317, 857–862.
- Yoshii T., Funada Y., Ibuki-Ishibashi T., Matsumoto A., Tanimura T. and Tomioka K. 2004 Drosophila cryb mutation reveals two circadian clocks that drive locomotor rhythm and have different responsiveness to light. J. Insect Physiol. 50, 479–488. CrossRef
- Youngbluth M. J. 1975 The vertical distribution and diel migration of euphausiids in the central waters of the Eastern South Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. 22, 519–536.
- Is vertical migration in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) influenced by an underlying circadian rhythm?
Journal of Genetics
Volume 87, Issue 5 , pp 473-483
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Antarctic krill
- vertical migration
- circadian rhythm
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
- 3. British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Rd, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
- 4. School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA
- 2. Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK