Alonso-Andicoberry C, Garcia-Pena F J, Pereira-Bueno J, Costas E and Ortega-Mora L M 2001 Herd-level risk factors associated with Leptospira spp
. seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle in Spain; Prev. Vet. Med.
Anderson C D, Folland D S, Fox M D, Patton C M and Kaufmann A F 1978 Leptospirosis: a common-source outbreak due to leptospires of the Grippotyphosa serogroup; Am. J. Epidemiol.
Bahaman A R, Ibrahim A L, Stallman N D and Tinniswood R D 1988 The bacteriological prevalence of leptospiral infection in cattle and buffaloes in West Malaysia; Epidemiol. Infect.
Baker M F and Baker H J 1970 Pathogenic leptospires in Malaysian surface waters I. A method of survey for leptospira in natural waters and soils; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Barcellos C, Sabroza P C 2001 The place behind the case: leptospirosis risk and associated environmental conditions in a flood-related outbreak in Rio de Janeiro; Cad Saüde Püblica Rio de Janeiro
Barocchi M A, Ko A I, Reis M G, McDonald K L and Riley L W 2002 Rapid translocation of polarized MDCK cell monolayers by Leptospira interrogans
, an invasive but nonintracellular pathogen; Infect. Immun.
Barker F A. 1926 Leptospirosis: With special reference to the existence of spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica, or Weil’s disease in the Andaman Islands; Indian Med. Gaz.
Barua H C, Biswas D and Mahanta J 1999 Clinico-epidemiological study on leptospirosis in certain parts of north-eastern region; J. Commun. Dis.
Bolin C A and Koellner P 1988. Human-to-human transmission of Leptospira interrogans by milk; J. Infect. Dis.
Boqvist S, Chau B L, Gunnarsson A, Olsson Engvall E, Vagsholm I and Magnusson U 2002 Animal-and herd-level risk factors for leptospiral seropositivity among sows in the Mekong delta, Vietnam; Prev. Vet. Med.
Bovet P, Yersin C, Merien F, Davis C E and Perolat P 1999. Factors associated with clinical leptospirosis: a population-based case-control study in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean); Int. J. Epidemiol.
Brenner D J, Kaufmann A F, Sulzer K R, Steigerwalt A G, Rogers F C and Weyant R S 1999 Further determination of DNA relatedness between serogroups and serovars in the family Leptospiraceae with a proposal for Leptospira alexanderi sp. Now and four new Leptospira genomospecies; Int. J. Systematic Bacteriol.
Bunnell J E, Hice C L, Watts D M, Montrueil V, Tesh R B and Vinetz J M 2000 Detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. infections among mammals captured in the Peruvian Amazon Basin region; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Chowdry A K 1903 Jaundice at Port Blair, Andaman Islands; Indian Med. Gaz.
Colagross-Schouten A M, Mazet J A, Gulland F M, Miller M A and Hietala S 2002 Diagnosis and seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions from coastal California; J. Wildl. Dis.
Collares-Pereira M, Mathias M L, Santos-Reis M, Ramalhinho M G and Duarte-Rodrigues P. 2000. Rodents and Leptospira transmission risk in Terceira island (Azores); Eur. J. Epidemiol.
Cousins D V, Ellis T M, Parkinson J and McGlashan C H 1989. Evidence for sheep as a maintenance host for Leptospira interrogans
serovar hardjo; Vet. Rec.
Dalal P M 1960 Leptospirosis in Bombay: Report of 12 cases; Indian J. Med. Sci.
De Castro A B 1922 Toxic Jaundice of unknown origin; Indian Med. Gaz.
D’souza C, Dwivedi S and Balasubramanian R 1990 Leptospirosis with atrial flutter (a case report); J. Postgrad. Med.
Demers R Y, Frank R, Demers P and Clay M 1985. Leptospiral exposure in Detroit rodent control workers; Am. J. Pub. Hlth.
Ellis W A, Logan E F, O’Brien J J, Neill S D, Ferguson H W and Hanna J 1978 Antibodies to leptospira in the sera of aborted bovine foetuses; Vet. Rec.
Ellis W A, McParland P J, Bryson D G and McNulty M S 1985 Leptospires in pig urogenital tract and foetuses; Vet. Rec.
Ellis W A, Songer J G, Montgomery J and Cassells J A 1986 Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans
serovar hardjo in the genital and urinary tracts of non-pregnant cattle; Vet. Rec.
Faine S 1982 Guidelines for control of leptospirosis (Geneva: World Health Organization)
Faine S 1994 Leptospira and leptospirosis (London: CRC Press)
Flint S H, Marahshall R B and Winter P J 1986 Dual infection of red deer (Cerphus elaphus) with Leptospira interrogans
serovars copenhageni and hardjo; N. Z. Vet. J.
Inada R and Ido Y 1915 The pure cultivation of Spirochaeta Icterohaemorrhagiae japonica (in Japanese); Saikingaku Zasshi
Jha R K 1997 Asceptic meningitis syndrome in coal mine elt of Bihar-due to leptospirosis Souvenir/Abstract Book (National Symposium-cum-Workshop on leptospirosis, Regional Medical Research Centre, Port Blair) p. 40
Karande S, Kulkarni H, Kulkarni M, De A and Varaiya A. 2002 Leptospirosis in children in Mumbai slums; Indian J. Pediatr.
Kmety E and Dicken H 1988 Revised list of “Leptospira” serovars. I Alphebetical order, II chronological order, 1 and 2 (Griningen, the Netherlands: University Press)
Kmety E and Dicken H. 1993 Classification of the species Leptospira interrogans and history of its serovars (Griningen, The Netherlands: University Press)
Ko A I, Reis M G, Dourado C M R, Johnson Jr W D and Riley L W 1999 Urban epidemic of severe leptospirosis in Brazil. Salvador Leptospirosis Study Group; Lancet
Kuriakose M, Eapen C K and Paul R 1997 Leptospirosis in Kolenchery, Kerala, India: epidemiology, prevalent local serogroups and serovars and a new serovar; Eur. J. Epidemiol.
Laras K, Van C A, Bounlu K, Tien N T K, Olson J G, Thongchanh S. Anh T N V, Loan H K, Punjabi N, Khem H B, An U S, Insisiengmay S, Watts D M, Beecham H J and Corwin A L 2002. The importance of leptospirosis in Southeast Asia; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Levett P N 2001 Leptospirosis; Clin. Microbiol. Rev.
Little T W, Hathaway S C, Broughton E S and Seawright D 1992 Control of Leptospira hardjo
infection in beef cattle by whole-herd vaccination; Vet. Rec.
Madhusudhana S N and Bhargawa S K 1988 Serological survey of leptospirosis in and around Bangalore; Indian J. Pathol. Microbiol.
Matthias M A and Levett P N 2002. Leptospiral carriage by mice and mongooses on the island of Barbados; West Indian Med. J.
Meites, E, Jay M T, Deresinski S, Shieh Wun-Ju, Zaki S R, Tompkins L and Smith D S 2004. Reemerging Leptospirosis, California; Emerg. Infect. Dis.
Merien F, Baranton G and Perolat P 1997 Invasion of Vero cells and induction of apoptosis in macrophages by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans
are correlated with virulence; Infect. Immun.
Mohanty J K 1945 The occurrence of leptospirosis in Orissa; Indian Med. Gaz. (July 1945) 337–338
Murhekar M V, Sugunan A P, Vijayachari P, Sharma S and Sehgal S C 1998 Risk factors in the transmission of leptospiral infection; Indian J. Med. Res.
Muthusethupathi M A, Shivakumar S, Vijayakumar R and Jayakumar M 1994 Renal involvement in leptospirosis—our experience in Madras City; J. Postgrad. Med.
Muthusethupathy M A, Sivakumar S, Suguna R, Jayakumar M, Vijayakumar R and Everard C O R 1995 Leptospirosis in Madras — a clinical and serological study; J. Assoc. Physicians India
Natarajaseenivasan K, Boopalan M, Selvanayaki K, Sureshbabu S R and Ratnam S 2002 Leptospirosis among rice mill workers of Salem. India; Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
Palaniappan R U, Chang Y F, Jusuf S S, Artiushin S, Timoney J F, McDonough S P, Barr S C, Divers T J, Simpson K W, McDonough P L and Mohammed H O 2002 Cloning and molecular characterization of an immunogenic LigA protein of Leptospira interrogans
; Infect. Immun.
Park S, Lee, S, Rhee Y, Kang S, Kim K, Kim M, Kim K and Chang W. 1989. Leptospirosis in Chonbuk province of Korea in 1987: a study of 93 patients; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Prabhaker P K, Harish B N and Sambasiva Rao R 1997 Seroprevalence in Pondicherry Souvenir/Abstract Book (National Symposium-cum-Workshop on leptospirosis, Regional Medical Research Centre, Port Blair) p. 34
Rathinamsivakumar, Ratnam S, Sureshbabu L and Natarajaseenivasan K 1996 Leptospiral antibodies in patients with recurrent ophthalmic involvement; Indian J. Med. Res.
Rathinam S R, Rathnam S, Selvaraj S, Dean D, Nozik R A and Namperumalsamy P 1997 Uveitis associated with an epidemic outbreak of Leptospirosis; Am. J. Ophthalmol.
Ratnam S, Sundararaj T and Subramanian S 1983. Serological evidence of leptospirosis in a human population following an outbreak of the disease in cattle; Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Ruiz-Pina H A, Puc-Franco M A, Flores-Abuxapqui J, Vado-Solis I and Cardenas-Marrufo M F 2002 Isolation of Salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to Leptospira interrogans in opossums (Didelphis virginiana
) from Yucatan, Mexico; Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
Sahni S, Koppikar G V, Deshpande S, Pai-Dhungat J V, Gaikwad S 1995 Leptospirosis in Bombay (Maharashtra); Proceedings of the South Asian Workshop on Diagnostic Methods in Leptospirosis (Sawdil —’ 95) (The Tamil Nadu Dr M G R Medical University, Nadras, India) pp 52–54
Saravanan R, Rajendran P, Thyagarajan S P, Smythe L D, Norris M A, Symonds M L and Dohnt M F 2000. Leptospira autumnalis
isolated from a human case from Avadi, India, and the serovar’s predominance in local rat and bandicoot populations; Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol.
Sarkar U, Nascimento S F, Barbosa R, Martins R, Nuevo H, Kalafanos H, Grunstein I, Flannery G, Dias J, Riley L W, Reis M G and Ko A I 2002 Population-based case-control investigation of risk factors for leptospirosis during an urban epidemic; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Scanziani E, Origgi F, Giusti A M, Iacchia G, Vasino A, Pirovano G, Scarpa P and Tagliabue S 2002 Serological survey of leptospiral infection in kenneled dogs in Italy; J. Small Anim. Pract.
Sehgal S C, Murhekar M V and Sugunan A P 1995 Outbreak of leptospirosis with pulmonary involvement in North Andaman; Indian J. Med. Res.
Sehgal S C, Vijayachari P, Sharma S and Sugunan A P 1999 Lepto dipstick: a rapid and simple method for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis; Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hygiene
Sehgal S C, Sugunan A P, Murhekar M V, Sharma S and Vijayachari P 2000 Randomised controlled trial of doxycycline prophylaxis in an endemic area; Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
Sehgal S C, Sugunan A P and Vijayachari P 2003 Leptospirosis: disease burden estimation and surveillance networking in India; South East Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Hlth. (Suppl. 2)
Sehgal S C, Sugunan A P and Vijayachari P 2001 Outbreak of leptospirosis after cyclone in Orissa; Natl. Med. J. India
Sejvar J, Bancroft E, Winthrop K, Bettinger J, Bajani M, Bragg S, Shutt K, Kaiser R, Marano N, Popovic T, Tappero J, Ashford D, Mascola L, Vugia D, Perkins B, Rosenstein N, Eco-Challenge Investigation Team 2003 Leptospirosis in “Eco-Challenge” athletes, Malaysian Borneo, 2000; Emerg. Infect. Dis.
Seixas F K, da Silva E F, Hartwig D D, Cerqueira G M, Amaral M, Fagundes M Q, Dossa R G and Dellagostin O A 2007 Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing the LipL32 antigen of Leptospira interrogans protects hamsters from challenge; Vaccine
Sharma S, Vijayachari P, Sugunan A P and Sehgal S C 2003 Leptospiral carrier rate and seroprevalence among the animal population — a cross-sectional survey in Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Epidemiol. Infect.
Singh S S, Vijayachari P, Sinha A, Sugunan A P, Rashid M A and Sehgal S C 1999 Clinico-epidemiological study of hospitalized cases severe leptospirosis; Indian J. Med. Res.
Smith D J W and Self H R M 1955 Observations on the survival of Leptospira australis A
in soil and water; J. Hyg.
Stimson A M 1907 Note on an organism found in yellow-fever tissue; Public Health Rep.
Takafuji E T, Kirkpatrick J W, Miller R N, Karwaki J J, Kelley P W, Gray M, McNeill K M, Timboe L H, Kane R E and Sanchez R L 1984 An efficacy trial of doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against leptospirosis; N. Engl. J. Med.
Tangkanakul W, Tharmaphornpil P, Plikaytis B D, Bragg S, Poonsuksombat D, Choomkasien P, Kingnate D and Ashford D A 2000a Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in Northeastern Thailand; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Tangkanakul W, Tharmaphornpil P, Plikaytis B D, Bragg S, Poonsuksombat D, Choomkasien P, Kingnate D and Ashford D A 2000b Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in Northeastern Thailand, 1998; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Taylor J and Goyle A N 1931 Leptospirosis in Andamans (Suppl. Indian J. Med. Res. Mem. No. 20), (Indian Research Fund Association) (Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co.)
Torten M, Shenberg E, Gerichter C B, Neuman P and Klinberg M A 1973 A new leptospiral vaccine for use in man. II. Clinical and serological evaluation of a field trial with volunteers; J. infect. Dis.
Vado-Solìs I, Cárdenas-Marrufo M E, Jiménez-Delgaddilo B, Alzina-López A, Lavida-Molina H, Suarez-Solís V, Zavala-Veláquez J E 2002 Clinical-epidemiological study of leptospirosis in humans and reservoirs in Yucátat, México; Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. S. Poulo
Venkataraman K S and Nedunchelliyan S 1992 An outbreak of leptospirosis in man and dog occurred during the monsoon in Madras city, India; Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
Vijayachari P, Sugunan A P and Sehgal S C 2002 Evaluation of Lepto Dri Dot as a rapid test for the diagnosis of Leptospirosis; Epidemiol. Infection.
Vijayachari P, Hartskeerl R A, Sharma S, Natarajaseenivasan K, Roy S, Terpstra W J and Sehgal S C 2004 A unique strain of Leptospira isolated from a patient with pulmonary haemorrhages in the Andaman Islands: a proposal of serovar portblairi of serogroup Sehgali. Epidemiol. Infect
Waitkins S A 1987 Leptospirosis; in Manson’s tropical diseases 19th edition (eds) P E C Manson-Bhar and D R Bell (London: Bailliére Tindall) pp 657–665
Weil A 1886 Ueber eine eigenthümliche, mit Milztumor, icterus and nephritis einhergehende, acute infectionsskrankheit; Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med.
Woolley J M 1911 Malaria in Andamans; Indian Med. Gaz.
Woolley J M 1913 Malaria in Andamans; Indian Med. Gaz.
World Health Organization 2003 Human leptospirosis: Guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control (Geneva: World Health Organization)
World Health Organization. 2000. Leptospirosis, India — report of the investigation of a post-cyclone outbreak in Orissa, November, 1999; Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec.
Zaki S R and Sheih W J 1996 Leptospirosis associated with outbreak of acute febrile illness with pulmonary haemorrhage, Nicaragua, 1995. The epidemic working group at Ministry of Health in Nicaragua; Lancet
Zhijun W, Li J and Alicja W 2007a Leptospirosis vaccines; Microbial Cell Factories
Zhijun W, Li J, Alicja W 2007b Leptospirosis vaccine ontology database http://www.computationalmedicalbiology.org/VaccineList.aspx