The Neural Stem Cell Microenvironment: Focusing on Axon Guidance Molecules and Myelin-Associated Factors
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- Xu, CJ., Wang, JL. & Jin, WL. J Mol Neurosci (2015) 56: 887. doi:10.1007/s12031-015-0538-1
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Neural stem cells (NSCs) could produce various cell phenotypes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the central nervous system (CNS), where neurogenesis has been determined to occur. The extracellular microenvironment also influences the behaviors of NSCs during development and at CNS injury sites. Our previous study indicates that myelin, a component of the CNS, could regulate the differentiation of NSCs in vitro. Recent reports have implicated three myelin-derived inhibitors, NogoA, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), as well as several axon guidance molecules as regulators of NSC survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavior of NSCs are not fully understood. In this study, we summarize the current literature on the effects of different extrinsic factors on NSCs and discuss possible mechanisms, as well as future possible clinical applications.