The urban watershed continuum: evolving spatial and temporal dimensions
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- Kaushal, S.S. & Belt, K.T. Urban Ecosyst (2012) 15: 409. doi:10.1007/s11252-012-0226-7
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Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time with active management or degradation. An urban watershed continuum framework recognizes a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths that expands hydrologic networks in ways that are seldom considered. It recognizes that the nature of hydrologic connectivity influences downstream fluxes and transformations of carbon, contaminants, energy, and nutrients across 4 space and time dimensions. Specifically, it proposes that (1) first order streams are largely replaced by urban infrastructure (e.g. storm drains, ditches, gutters, pipes) longitudinally and laterally within watersheds, (2) there is extensive longitudinal and lateral modification of organic carbon and nutrient retention in engineered headwaters (3) there are longitudinal downstream pulses in material and energy exports that are amplified by interactive land-use and hydrologic variability, (4) there are vertical interactions between leaky pipes and ground water that influence stream solute transport, (5) the urban watershed continuum is a transformer and transporter of materials and energy based on hydrologic residence times, and (6) temporally, there is an evolution of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem functions as land use and urban infrastructure change over time. We provide examples from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological (LTER) site along 4 spatiotemporal dimensions. Long-term monitoring indicates that engineered headwaters increase downstream subsidies of nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, carbon, and metals compared with undeveloped headwaters. There are increased longitudinal transformations of carbon and nitrogen from suburban headwaters to more urbanized receiving waters. Hydrologic connectivity along the vertical dimension between ground water and leaky pipes from Baltimore’s aging infrastructure elevates stream solute concentrations. Across time, there has been increased headwater stream burial, evolving stormwater management, and long-term salinization of Baltimore’s drinking water supply. Overall, an urban watershed continuum framework proposes testable hypotheses of how transport/transformation of materials and energy vary along a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths in space and time. Given interest in transitioning from sanitary to sustainable cities, it is necessary to recognize the evolving relationship between infrastructure and ecosystem function along the urban watershed continuum.