Social Indicators Research

, Volume 97, Issue 2, pp 143–156

New Well-being Measures: Short Scales to Assess Flourishing and Positive and Negative Feelings

  • Ed Diener
  • Derrick Wirtz
  • William Tov
  • Chu Kim-Prieto
  • Dong-won Choi
  • Shigehiro Oishi
  • Robert Biswas-Diener
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11205-009-9493-y

Cite this article as:
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W. et al. Soc Indic Res (2010) 97: 143. doi:10.1007/s11205-009-9493-y
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Abstract

Measures of well-being were created to assess psychological flourishing and feelings—positive feelings, negative feelings, and the difference between the two. The scales were evaluated in a sample of 689 college students from six locations. The Flourishing Scale is a brief 8-item summary measure of the respondent’s self-perceived success in important areas such as relationships, self-esteem, purpose, and optimism. The scale provides a single psychological well-being score. The measure has good psychometric properties, and is strongly associated with other psychological well-being scales. The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience produces a score for positive feelings (6 items), a score for negative feelings (6 items), and the two can be combined to create a balance score. This 12-item brief scale has a number of desirable features compared to earlier measures of positive and negative emotions. In particular, the scale assesses with a few items a broad range of negative and positive experiences and feelings, not just those of a certain type, and is based on the amount of time the feelings were experienced during the past 4 weeks. The scale converges well with measures of emotions and affective well-being.

Keywords

Subjective well-beingWell-beingMeasurePositive affectNegative affectScales (or Assessment)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ed Diener
    • 1
    • 2
  • Derrick Wirtz
    • 3
  • William Tov
    • 4
  • Chu Kim-Prieto
    • 5
  • Dong-won Choi
    • 6
  • Shigehiro Oishi
    • 7
  • Robert Biswas-Diener
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA
  2. 2.The Gallup OrganizationOmahaUSA
  3. 3.East Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA
  4. 4.Singapore Management UniversityBras BasahSingapore
  5. 5.College of New JerseyEwingUSA
  6. 6.California State University, East BayHaywardUSA
  7. 7.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  8. 8.Center for Applied Positive PsychologyMilwaukieUSA