Original Article

Sex Roles

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 329-339

First online:

Gender Differences in Virtual Negotiation: Theory and Research

  • Alice F. StuhlmacherAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, DePaul University Email author 
  • , Maryalice CiteraAffiliated withSUNY—New Paltz
  • , Toni WillisAffiliated withSUNY—New Paltz

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Social roles create conflicting behavioral expectations for female negotiators; however, virtual negotiations reduce social pressures. This paper reviews theoretical explanations on why men and women might differ in negotiations that occur through email, telephone, or video. Forty-three negotiation studies comparing face-to-face and virtual negotiations were examined for gender differences. All studies were reported in English but not limited to US participants. While many reports omitted gender information, meta-analytic findings supported the prediction that women would be more hostile in virtual compared to face-to-face negotiations, as well as finding no hostility difference for men between virtual and face-to-face negotiations. While negotiators overall were more successful face-to-face than virtually, results separated by gender did not find this effect.


E-mail Gender Negotiation Social Roles Virtual Negotiation