Sex Roles

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 329–339

Gender Differences in Virtual Negotiation: Theory and Research


    • Department of PsychologyDePaul University
  • Maryalice Citera
    • SUNY—New Paltz
  • Toni Willis
    • SUNY—New Paltz
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11199-007-9252-y

Cite this article as:
Stuhlmacher, A.F., Citera, M. & Willis, T. Sex Roles (2007) 57: 329. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9252-y


Social roles create conflicting behavioral expectations for female negotiators; however, virtual negotiations reduce social pressures. This paper reviews theoretical explanations on why men and women might differ in negotiations that occur through email, telephone, or video. Forty-three negotiation studies comparing face-to-face and virtual negotiations were examined for gender differences. All studies were reported in English but not limited to US participants. While many reports omitted gender information, meta-analytic findings supported the prediction that women would be more hostile in virtual compared to face-to-face negotiations, as well as finding no hostility difference for men between virtual and face-to-face negotiations. While negotiators overall were more successful face-to-face than virtually, results separated by gender did not find this effect.


E-mail Gender Negotiation Social Roles Virtual Negotiation

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007